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Table 4 Summary of animal trials on intra-arrest hypothermia during cardiac arrest according to method of cooling

From: Intra-arrest hypothermia during cardiac arrest: a systematic review

SYSTEMIC COOLING
  Outcomes IATH (%) NT (%) PATH (%) Species N Arrest Rhythm No-flow (min) HT method IATH core temp (°C) Time to ROSC (min)
Abella [8] Survival (%, 3 days) 60 10* 10* Mice 30 KCl NA 8 Ice-water blanket 30 10 to 11
  GNO (%, 3 days) 60 10* 10*         
  ROSC (%) 100 100 100         
Albaghdadi [35] ROSC (%) 78 45   Pigs 20 Asphyxia NA 5 PFC-TLV 36 11 to 13
  CoPP (mmHg) 14 14          
Boddicker [28] Survival (%, 24 hrs) 87 0*   Pigs 32 EC VF 8 Surrounding the body with ice 33 12 to 18
  GNO (%, 24 hrs) 87 0*          
  ROSC (%) 87 0*          
  CoPP (mmHg) 15 10          
Menegazzi [12] Survival (%, 20 min) 57 36   Pigs 28 EC VF 8 ivfluid 34 13
  ROSC (%) 86 43*          
  CoPP (mmHg) 10 11          
Nordmark [22] Survival (3-hrs) 80 100   Pigs 20 EC VF 8 ivfluid 36 15 to 20
  ROSC (%) 90 100          
Nordmark [25] Survival (%, 6 hrs) 100 100   Pigs 16 EC VF 8 ivfluid 33 17
  LPR > 30 (n) 29 88*          
  SjO2 (%, 6 hr) 100 78*          
  ROSC (%) 100 100          
Riter [10] Survival (%, 1 hr) 100 100   Pigs 24 EC VF 11 PFC-TLV 35 22
  ROSC (%) 88 12*          
  CoPP (mmHg) 14 10          
Shaffner [34] CBF (mL/100 g/min) 10 5*   Dogs 12 EC VF 6 Ice 28 NA
Staffey [15] ROSC (%) 82 27*   Pigs 33 EC VF 11 PFC-TLV 33 22
  CoPP (mmHg) 10 10          
Sterz [6] Survival (%, 3 days) 75 92 84 Dogs 36 EC VF 10 Cold iv fluids 34 16 to 20
  GNO (%, 3 days) 50 8* 41       External cooling   
  NDS (3 days) 19 36* 22         
  CPP (mmHg) 55 50 51         
  ROSC (%) 75 92 84         
  CoPP (mmHg) 42 48 43         
Xiao [24] Survival (%, 3 days) 100 100 100 Rats 30 Asphyxia NA 5 Ice water 34 7
  GNO (%, 3 days) 100 40* 80         
  NDS (3 days) 1 20* 12*         
  ROSC (%) 100 100 100         
Yannopoulos [13] ROSC (%) 100 66* 44 Pigs 45 CVO VF 5 Intravascular catheter 33 20
  CoPP (mmHg) 21 21 20         
  LVEF (%) 32 23* 21*         
Zhao [27] Survival (%, 7 days) 53 0*   Mice 45 KCl NA 8 Blankets 30 10 to 11
  GNO (%, 3 days) 66 0*          
  ROSC (%) 93 80          
  dP/dtmax (mmHg/s) 6000 3800*          
SELECTIVE BRAIN COOLING
Brader [26] Survival (24 hrs) 33 0   Dogs 12 EC VF 4 Ice bags around the head 36 24
  NDS (24 hrs) 37 62*          
  ROSC (%) 82 82          
Cho [32] Survival (hrs) 9.3 0.1*   Pigs 16 EC VF/PEA 14 TNEC 36 to 37 19 to 29
  ROSC (%) 75 12*          
  CoPP (mmHg) 25 14*          
Gelman [33] CPP (mmHg) 26 25   Pigs 14 EC VF 6 Cooling cap placed around the head 38 NA
  CBF (mL/100 g/min) 16 18          
  CoPP (mmHg) 16 18          
  MBF (mL/100 g/min) 43 80*          
Guan [29] Survival (%, 4-days) 100 29* 86 Pigs 24 EC VF 10 TNEC 34-35 15 to 25
  NDS (4-days) 0 400* 0         
Hagioka [23] Survival (%, 7-days) 100 100   Rats 14 CVO VF 5 NFC 37 6
  GNO (%, 7-days) 100 100          
  CPP (mmHg) 40 34          
  HDS 33 71*          
Jeung [21] Survival (%, 3 days) 72 72   Dogs 14 EC VF 9 CF 35 12 to 15
  NDS (3 days) 18 42*          
  ROSC (%) 100 100          
Tsai [30] Survival (%, 4 days) 100 25* 63 Pigs 24 EC VF 10 TNEC 34 15 to 25
  ROSC (%) 100 88 88         
  CoPP (mmHg) 21 18 20         
  LVEF (%) 63 52* 51*         
Tsai [31] Survival (%, 4 days) 100 29*   Pigs 16 EC VF 10 TNEC 34 15 to 25
  NDS (%, 4 days) 0 400*          
  ROSC (%) 100 88          
  CoPP (mmHg) 21 18          
  LVEF (%) 63 53*          
Wang [36] ROSC (%) 87 25*   Pigs 16 EC VF 15 TNEC 34 20 to 30
  CoPP (mmHg) 25 16*          
  1. CBF, cerebral blood flow; CF, carotid flush with cold saline fluids; CG, control group; CoPP, coronary perfusion pressure; CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure; CVO, coronary vascular occlusion; dP/dt, pressure/time ratio; EC, electrical current; GNO, good neurological outcome; HDS, histological deficit score; HT, hypothermia; IATH intra-arrest therapeutic hypothermia; KCl, potassium chloride; KT, catheter; LPR, lactate/pyruvate ratio; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction: MBF, myocardial blood flow; N, number; NA, not available; NDS, neurological deficit score; NFC, nasoparhyngeal cooling (saline); NT, normothermia; PATH, conventional (post-arrest) hypothermia; PFC-TLV, perfluorocarbon-based total liquid ventilation; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; SjO2, jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation; TNEC, trans-nasal evaporative cooling; VF, ventricular fibrillation; *, P < 0.05 vs. IATH