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Table 1 ILCOR levels of evidence for therapeutic interventions

From: Intra-arrest hypothermia during cardiac arrest: a systematic review

LOE 1 Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or meta-analyses of RCTs
LOE 2 Studies using concurrent controls without true randomization or meta-analyses of such studies
LOE 3 Studies using retrospective controls
LOE 4 Studies without a control group (for example, cases series)
LOE 5 Studies not directly related to the specific population (for example, different patients, animal models, mechanical models, and so on)