Flow patterns. Different flow patterns studied, all at similar VT, PEEP, and expiratory time. Inspiratory flow rate is positive. (a) Only TP modified. (b) Only TI modified. (c) TI and TP modified, maintaining constant MDT. (d) TI modified at shortest possible TP (1%). (e) Shape and TP modified. The definition of end-inspiratory flow (EIF) is illustrated for increasing flow and constant flow in (e). For decreasing flow, EIF is zero, because flow rate ceases during inspiration.