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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of study subjectsa

From: Brachial artery reactivity in patients with severe sepsis: an observational study

  Controls Severe sepsis p Survivors Nonsurvivors P
  ( n = 52) ( n = 95)   ( n = 78) ( n = 17)  
Age (years) 60 (53-66) 62 (49-74) 0.42 58 (48-71) 74 (64-78) 0.006
Male gender 26 (50%) 49 (52%) 0.85 43 (55%) 6 (35%) 0.14
Race    0.36c    0.37
   Caucasian 49 (94%) 80 (84%) - 67 (86%) 13 (76%) -
   African-American 3 (6%) 12 (13%) - 9 (12%) 3 (18%) -
   Asian 0 1 (1%) - 1 (1%) 0 (0) -
   Hispanic/Latino 0 2 (2%) - 1 (1%) 1 (5%) -
Hypertension history 11 (21%) 59 (62%) < 0.001 44 (56%) 15 (88%) 0.01
Hyperlipidemia 16 (31%) 34 (36%) 0.54 26 (33%) 8 (47%) 0.28
Current tobacco use 1 (2%) 23 (24%) < 0.001 20 (26%) 3 (18%) 0.76
MAP (mm Hg) 91 (84-100) 80 (72-90) < 0.001 82 (73-91) 79 (71-87) 0.31
Heart rate (beats/min) 61 (54-68) 87 (77-98) < 0.001 86 (77-98) 87 (80-102) 0.58
Temp (°C) - 36.9 ± 1.0 - 37.0 ± 1.01 36.9 ± 0.78 0.79
Charlson index 0 (0-1) 3 (1-5) < 0.001 2.5 (1-5) 4 (2-8) 0.05
Medical patient - 85 (89%) - 74 (95%) 11 (65%) 0.002
Surgical patient - 10 (11%) - 4 (5%) 6 (35%)  
Site of infection    -    0.47
   Pulmonary - 57 (60%) - 45 (58%) 12 (70%) --
   Intraabdominal - 11 (12%) - 9 (12%) 2 (12%) --
   Urinary - 11 (12%) - 11 (14%) 0 --
   Skin/catheter - 4 (4%) - 4 (5%) 0 --
   Other - 12 (13%) - 9 (12%) 3 (18%) --
Microbiology       0.63
   Gram-+ bacteria - 30 (32%) - 23 (29%) 7 (41%) --
   Gram-- bacteria - 16 (17%) - 13 (17%) 3 (18%) --
   Fungal - 3 (3%) - 3 (3%) 0 --
   Mixed or other - 17 (18%) - 13 (17%) 4 (24%) --
   Unknown - 29 (30%) - 26 (33%) 3 (18%) --
Positive blood culture - 33 (35%) - 27 (35%) 6 (35%) 0.96
Vasopressor useb - 27 (28%) - 19 (24%) 8 (47%) 0.08
Septic shockc - 73 (85%) - 58 (83%) 15 (94%) 0.45
APACHE II score - 23 ± 8 - 21.8 ± 8.0 28.3 ± 7.2 0.003
Dysfunctional organsd       0.04
   1 - 14 (15%) - 14 (18%) 0 --
   2 - 34 (36%) - 30 (38%) 4 (24%) --
   3 - 26 (27%) - 20 (26%) 6 (35%) --
   ≥ 4 - 21 (22%) - 14 (18%) 7 (41%) --
  1. Charlson index, Charlson comorbidity index [40]; MAP, mean arterial pressure at the time of brachial artery reactivity measurements; Temp, temperature at the time of brachial artery reactivity measurements; APACHE II, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II [37]; aValues are median (interquartile range), number (percentage), or mean (± SD); bvasopressor use, continuous intravenous infusion of one or more vasopressor agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, vasopressin) coincident with measurements of brachial artery reactivity; cshock, hypotension or vasopressor dependence that persisted for ≥ 3 hours despite fluid challenge at the time of diagnosis; dorgan dysfunctions as defined previously [65] with slight modification: cardiovascular (hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg or MAP < 60 mm Hg), vasopressor requirement, or clinical evidence of hypoperfusion); acid-base (metabolic acidosis and plasma lactate concentration > 2 mM); renal (urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/h despite fluid resuscitation); neurologic (altered mental status without other causes); respiratory (P:F ratio < 250, or < 200 if lungs are the only dysfunctional organs); hematologic (platelet count < 80,000 or > 50% decrease from baseline)