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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analyses for renal dysfunction and renal replacement therapy

From: Fluid management and risk factors for renal dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock

  Renal dysfunction Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis RRT Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  No ( n = 237) Yes ( n = 117) P Renal dysfunction
OR - IC 95%
No RRT
N = 298
RRT
N = 90
P RRT
Age (mean ± SD)(year) 63 ± 16 67 ± 14 0.03   63 ± 16 68 ± 15 0.03  
Female (n, %) 86 (36) 29 (25)   1 108 (36) 23 (25)   
Male (n, %) 151 (64) 88 (75) 0.03 2 [1.15 to 3.49] 190 (64) 67 (75) 0.04  
SAPS II at admission (median with interquartile) 42 [35-52] 49 [40-61] < 0.01 1.03 [1.01 to 1.05] per unit 43 [35 to 53] 50 [40 to 63] < 0.01  
Type of admission     1     
Medical 171 (72) 67 (57)   3.49 [1.01-12.07] 200 (67) 57 (63)   
Elective surgery 6 (3) 7 (6)   1.94 [1.13-3.35] 13 (4) 3 (3)   
Emergency surgery 60 (25) 43 (37) 0.01   85 (29) 30 (33) 0.68  
Fluid type (n, %)         
None 5 (2) 2 (1) 0.24   7 (2) 2 (2) 0.89  
Crystalloids 46 (19) 14 (12)    49 (17) 14 (16)   
Colloids 19 (8) 14 (12)    28 (9) 11 (12)   
both 166 (70) 87 (74)    214 (72) 63 (70)   
Use of colloids (n, %) 185 (78) 101 (86) 0.07   241 (81) 74 (82) 0.82  
Transfusion (n, %)         
YES 47(20) 32 (28) 0.07   70 (23) 25 (26) 0.49  
NO 190 (80) 82 (72)    228 (77) 65 (72)   
Vasopressors (n, %)         
YES 175 (74) 106 (91) < 0.01   225 (76) 82 (91) < 0.01 1
NO 62 (26) 11 (9)    73 (25) 8 (9)   2.61 [1.18 to 5.77]
Inotropic drug (n, %)         
YES 39 (16) 30 (26) 0.04   49 (16) 22 (24) 0.09  
NO 198 (84) 87 (74)    249 (84) 68 (76)   
Decrease in SOFA between H 0 and H 24 (n, %)         
YES 88 (37) 27 (23)   1 191 (64) 66 (73)   
NO 149 (63) 90 (77) < 0.01 2.49 [1.40-4.41] 107 (36) 24 (27) 0.11  
Baseline mean arterial pressure (mean ± SD) (mm Hg) 69 ± 22 69 ± 20 0.52   69 ± 22 69 ± 21 0.57  
Baseline central venous pressure (mean ± SD) (mm Hg)(MD = 264) 12 ± 5 12 ± 5 0.78   12 ± 5 12 ± 5 0.99  
Baseline arterial lactate (mean ± SD) (mMol/l)(MD = 162) 3.4 ± 2.7 3.6 ± 2.8 0.68   3.4 ± 2.7 3.6 ± 3.0 0.99  
History of renal dysfunction (n, %)         
YES 11 (5) 3 (3) 0.40   12 (4) 3 (3) 1.00  
NO 226 (95) 114 (97)    86 (96) 87 (97)   
Baseline creatinine (mean ± SD) (mMol/l) 122 ± 71 148 ± 84 < 0.01   119 ± 69 159 ± 87 < 0.01 1.006 [1.003-1.009] per unit
Baseline renal SOFA (n, %)    < 0.01     < 0.01  
0 to 1 174 (73) 69 (59)    218 (73) 51 (57)   
2-3 to 4 63 (27) 48 (41)    79 (27) 39 (43)   
Period of study         
Observational 130 (55) 52 (44) 0.06 1 158 (53) 44 (49) 0.49  
Interventional 107 (45) 65 (56)   1.90 [1.14-3.18] 140 (47) 46 (51)   
  1. In bold, factors associated with renal dysfunction, in bold and italic: factors associated with RRT. MD, missing data; OR, odds ratio; RRT, renal replacement therapy; SAPS II, simplified acute physiology score II; SOFA, sequential organ dysfunction score.