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Table 3 Treatment outcomes of patients with HAP in the DE and NDE groups

From: Early use of imipenem/cilastatin and vancomycin followed by de-escalation versus conventional antimicrobials without de-escalation for patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia in a medical ICU: a randomized clinical trial

  DE (n= 53) NDE (n= 55) Overall (n= 108) P
Time to adequate antimicrobials, days, mean (SD)a 1.9 (0.5) 2.8 (0.6) 2.4 (0.4) 0.280
Mortality     
   Day 14 13 (24.5%) 9 (16.7%) 22 (20.6%) 0.314
   Day 28 21 (39.6%) 14 (25.9%) 35 (32.7%) 0.131
   Hospital mortality 23 (44.2%) 18 (34.6%) 41 (39.4%) 0.316
ICU stay, days, mean (IQR)b 21.1 (6-35) 14.1 (6-19) 17.2 (6-19) 0.464c
Emergence of MDR organismsd 11 (37.9%) 7 (16.7%) 18 (25.4%) 0.043
   Time to development, days, mean (IQR) 19.4 (11-30) 22.7 (9-30) 21 (11-30) 0.108c
   Methicillin-resistant S. aureus 8 (27.6%) 4 (9.5%) 12 (16.9%) 0.059
   Gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae 4 (13.8%) 5 (11.9%) 9 (12.9%) > 0.999
S. maltophilia 3 (10.7%) 2 (4.8%) 5 (7.1%) 0.383
Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii 0 2 (4.8%) 2 (2.9%) 0.513
Imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa 0 1 (2.4%) 1 (1.4%) > 0.999
ESBL-producing K. pneumonia 1 (3.6%) 0 1 (2.9%) 0.400
  1. Values given as number (%) of patients, unless otherwise stated. DE, de-escalation group; ESBL, extended spectrum β-lactamase; IQR, inter-quartile range; MDR, multidrug-resistant; NDE, non-de-escalation group; SD, standard deviation. aTime from initial diagnosis of pneumonia to administration of adequate antimicrobial agent among initially culture-positive patients. bExcluding patients who died. cWith the Kruskal-Wallis rank test. dMDR organisms isolated within 1 month of study enrollment. Patients with initial MDR organisms were excluded (24 patients in the DE and 13 in the NDE group). MDR organisms include methicillin-resistant S. aureus, imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, imipenem-resistant A. baumannii, S. maltophilia, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing organisms.