Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients in the DE and NDE groups

From: Early use of imipenem/cilastatin and vancomycin followed by de-escalation versus conventional antimicrobials without de-escalation for patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia in a medical ICU: a randomized clinical trial

Characteristics DE (n= 54)a NDE (n= 55) P b
Gender    0.772
   Male 43 (79.6%) 45 (81.8%)  
   Female 11 (20.4%) 10 (18.2%)  
Age (range), year (IQR) 66.4 (61-77) 61.7 (51-71) 0.117
PaO2/FiO2, mean (SD) 181.8 (103.0) 177.7 (68.1) 0.813
Type of pneumonia    > 0.999c
   Hospital-acquired pneumonia 50 (92.6%) 50 (90.9%)  
   Ventilator-associated pneumonia 4 (7.4%) 5 (9.1%)  
On mechanical ventilation 47 (50.5%) 46 (49.5%) 0.449
Baseline APACHE II score, mean (SD) 23.3 (5.6) 22.8 (5.7) 0.607
Baseline SOFA score, mean (SD) 9.1 (3.1) 8.4 (3.6) 0.270
Baseline CPIS, mean (SD) 6.7 (1.4) 6.8 (1.3) 0.807
Prior hospital day (IQR)d 16.7 (4-17) 9 (4-10) 0.064
Prior ICU day (IQR)d 4.4 (1-5) 3.4 (1-5) 0.182
Prior ICU days > 5 days 33 (61.1%) 31 (56.4%) 0.416
Prior days on mechanical ventilation (IQR)d 3.3 (0-4) 2.5 (0-4) 0.347
Prior antimicrobial administratione 18 (34.6%) 24 (43.6%) 0.340
Initial presentation    0.943
   Severe sepsis 27 (50%) 29 (52.7%)  
   Septic shock 10 (18.5%) 10 (18.2%)  
   ARDS 17 (31.5%) 16 (29.1%)  
Underlying disease    
   Hypertension 14 (26.9%) 12 (22.6%) 0.611
   Neurologic disease 15 (28.8%) 15 (28.3%) 0.951
   COPD 5 (9.6%) 6 (11.3%) > 0.999
   Liver cirrhosis 5 (9.6%) 8 (15.1%) 0.555
   CRF/ESRD 4 (7.7%) 3 (5.7%) 0.716c
   Diabetes mellitus 16 (30.8%) 14 (26.4%) 0.621
   Alcoholism 4 (7.7%) 4 (7.5%) > 0.999c
   Hematologic malignancy 1 (1.9%) 2 (3.8%) > 0.999c
Modified McCabe score    0.968c
   Life expectancy < 1 month 4 (7.5%) 2 (3.6%)  
   Life expectancy 1 month to 5 years 40 (75.5%) 46 (83.6%)  
   Life expectancy > 5 years 9 (17%) 7 (12.7%)  
  1. Values given as mean (standard deviation) or number (percentage) of patients. ALI, acute lung injury; APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPIS, clinical pulmonary infection score; CRF, chronic renal failure; DE, de-escalation group; ESRD; end-stage renal disease; HAP, hospital-acquired pneumonia; IQR, interquartile range; NDE, non-de-escalation group; SOFA, sequential organ-failure assessment; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia. aClinical outcome of one patient in the DE group was not available. bWith the Student t test or the χ2 test. cWith the Fisher Exact test. dDays before study enrollment in mean (IQR), only including the time spent at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). dPrior administration of antimicrobial agent within 2 days.