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Table 2 Levels of IL6, IL8 and TNF-α in neonatal versus adult sepsis

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Neonatal sepsis - redox processes in pathogenesis

    Group   
Sample Stimulus Cytokine Neonate Adult Other cytokines showing no difference Reference
Human blood GBS IL6 (pg/ml) 100 ± 105 14 ± 13 (P = 0.003) IL-1β [98]
   IL8 3,355 ± 1,762 1,109 ± 452 (P = 0.01)   
   TNF-α 592 ± 349 481 ± 261 (NS)   
Human blood E. coli IL6 (pg/ml) 1,000 ± 0 783 ± 84 (P = 0.02) IL-1β [98]
   IL8 7,120 ± 751 4,995 ± 472 (P = 0.003)   
   TNF-α 952 ± 167 908 ± 62 (NS)   
Human blood HSV-1 IL6 (pg/ml) 3,920 ± 3750 360 ± 190 (P = 0.033) - [99]a
   IL8 (ng/ml) 32 ± 38 6.5 ± 1.7 (P = 0.066)   
Human mononuclear cells 11 bacterial IL6 (ng/ml) 104 ± 36 59 ± 20 (P < 0.01) IL10 [100]a
  speciesb TNF-α 16 ± 14 17 ± 15 (NS) IL12  
Human monocytes LPS TNF-α (pg/ml) 610 2,230 (P < 0.05) - [101]
Human monocytes LPS IL6 (ng/ml) 3.7 ± 1.1 1 ± 0.3 (P < 0.05) - [102]
   TNF-α 0.6 ± 0.2 3.3 ± 1.3 (P < 0.05)   
Human blood LPS TNF-α (ng/ml) 1.47 ± 1.03 3.89 ± 1.94 (P < 0.05) IL2 IL4 IFN-γ [38]
  1. aWe extracted and pooled the results provided in the manuscripts and performed statistical analysis. bEleven different bacterial species from intestinal flora, each being studied separately. GBS, Group B streptococcus; HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type-1; IFN, interferon; NS, not significant.