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Table 4 Studies evaluating sE-selectin-1

From: Clinical utility of biomarkers of endothelial activation in sepsis-a systematic review

Study Year N Population Standard Criteria for SIRS/Sepsis Association with sepsis Other outcomes
Schuetz et al., [52] 2011 161 Patients with hypotension: 69 sepsis, 35 cardiac, 12 hemorrhagic, 12 unknown Clinical classification based on clinical and microbiological data E-selectin higher in sepsis compared to non-sepsis (P < 0.05) E-selectin independently associated with sepsis after adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure and mortality (P = 0.001) with AUC of 0.74 for discrimination of sepsis and non-sepsis  
Shapiro et al., [51] 2010 221 ED patients with sepsis without organ dysfunction (71), severe sepsis without shock (66), septic shock (71), and non-infected controls (13) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 levels elevated in septic shock compared with non-infected controls sE-selectin-1 associated with sepsis severity P < 0.001; predicts mortality and severe sepsis (AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.78) respectively)
Stief et al., [54] 2007 86 ICU patients with Sepsis (62), healthy controls (24) Clinically diagnosed sepsis sE-selectin-1 elevated in sepsis compared to reference value (190 ng/ml vs 55 ng/ml; P < 0.05))  
Kinoshita et al., [56] 2002 56 Gram negative sepsis from intra-abdominal infection admitted to surgical ICU (47), healthy controls (9) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 does not differentiate between ARDS from non ARDS Not predictive of mortality in those with ARDS
Geppert et al., [74] 2000 32 ICU patients on day two post successfulCPR (25), non-critically ill controls (7) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in SIRS compared to controls (96.2 ng/ml vs 42.8 ng/ml; P = 0.23), but does not differentiate patients with SIRS vs patients without SIRS Higher in non-survivors than survivors (114.2 ng/ml vs 85.7 ng/ml; P = 0.025)
Osmanovic et al., [72] 2000 27 ICU patients with sepsis with MOF (9), healthy controls (18) Clinical definition of sepsis sE-selectin-1 higher in sepsis compared to healthy controls (118 vs 28.5 ng/ml; P < 0.001)  
Hynninen et al., [70] 1999 20 ICU patients with severe sepsis (11), severe acute pancreatitis (9) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin does not differentiation between those with severe acute pancreatitis and severe sepsis Higher in those with higher SOFA scores (SOFA ≥ 10, P = 0.043), but not correlated with mortality
Presterl et al., [69] 1999 40 ICU patients with candida (20) and bacterial sepsis (20) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 lower in patients with Candida sepsis than bacterial sepsis (P < 0.05) on Day 1 Higher in non-survivors
Takala et al., [71] 1999 76 Hospitalized patients with sepsis with organ failure (8) and without organ failure (12); healthy controls (56) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 level elevated in septic patients compared to healthy adults P < 0.001 Not correlated with organ failure
Weigand et al., [58] 1999 21 Surgical ICU patients with septic shock (14), healthy controls (7) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in sepsis than healthy controls (P < 0.05) Not predictive of mortality or severity of disease
Froon et al., [73] 1998 42 ICU patients with sepsis and VAP 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock than other VAP patients, but statistical significance not achieved Day 2 sE-selectin-1 higher in nonsurvivors than survivors (114.3 vs 67.0 ng/ml; P = 0.04); Correlates poorly with SAPSII (r = 0.18, P = 0.25)
Kayal et al., [59] 1998 41 ICU patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (25), ICU controls (7), healthy controls (9) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in septic patients than noninfected ICU controls and healthy volunteers (p < 0.0001); higher in those with septic shock than those without (p < 0.05) sE-selectin-1 higher in nonsurvivors than survivors on day 0 (286 vs 195 ng/ml; P < 0.05), but decreases after Day 3 of sepsis to reach a level similar to that of survivors Day 14; correlated with SAPS and MOF score (r = 0.45, P < 0.05 for MOF)
Knapp et al., [78] 1998 54 Patients with sepsis (28 gram positive, 11 gram negative), 15 healthy controls 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in septic patients than controls p < 0.05 sE-selectin-1 higher in nonsurvivors than survivors of gram positive sepsis on day 0, 4 and 7 (175 vs 85 ng/ml, P < 0.01; 155.7 vs 78.8 ng/ml, P < 0.05; 180 vs 76.1 ng/ml, P < 0.001, respectively); does not differentiate gram positive from gram negative infections.
Boldt et al., [60] 1997 30 Surgical ICU patients with post-operative sepsis (30), healthy controls (not stated) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in septic patients than healthy controls Higher in older than younger patients P < 0.05, and tends to increase in older patients and decrease in younger patients over time
Cummings et al., [79] 1997 119 ICU patients with sepsis (67), SIRS (44), ICU controls (8) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in culture positive sepsis than culture negative sepsis, SIRS and ICU controls (15.39 vs 4.87, 2.33, and 1.97 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001) Day 1 levels higher for nonsurvivors than survivors (10.61 vs 4.35 ng/ml of log transformed mean sE-selectin-1; P < 0.05); sE-selectin-1 correlates strongly to the degree of hemodynamic compromise (P < 0.0001), and moderately with the peak MOF score (r = 0.30, P = 0.001)
Egerer et al., [61] 1997 24 ICU patients with infection (8), severe sepsis (16) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] Higher in patients with severe sepsis and MOF than those with infection alone (P < 0.05) Higher in nonsurvivors than survivors on Day 7-8, P < 0.05
Takakuwa et al., [62] 1997 34 ICU admissions with sepsis (20), trauma (14) No Standard Definition sE-selectin-1 higher in sepsis than trauma (287.9 vs 195.0 ng/ml; P = 0.0055) sE-selectin-1 level correlated with TNF-α, IL-8, Type II PLA2, sICAM-1 (P < 0.005 for all)
Boldt et al., [63] 1996 30 Surgical ICU patients with postoperative sepsis (15), trauma (15) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sE-selectin-1 higher in sepsis than trauma (340 vs 57.9 ng/ml; P < 0.05)  
Endo et al., [64] 1996 28 ICU patients with sepsis with MOF (8), sepsis without MOF (15), MOF without sepsis (5) Clinical diagnosis of sepsis sE-selectin-1 higher in septic patients with or without MOF than patients with MOF but no infection (345.2 vs 121.8 ng/ml, P = 0.0016; 266.2 vs 121.8 ng/ml, P = 0.0054) sE-selectin-1 did not differ significantly between septic patients with and without MOF (345.2 vs 266.2 ng/ml; P = 0.2939)
Moss et al., [66] 1996 55 ICU patients with sepsis (19), trauma (36) controls (5) Clinical diagnosis of sepsis Higher in sepsis than trauma and controls (573 vs 148 and 235 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.001)  
Simons et al., [75] 1996 50 Multiple trauma patients, infectious complications in 14 Not specified sE-selectin-1 higher in patients who subsequently developed infection, organ dysfunction, or both, by 36 h. P = 0.08 sE-selectin-1 higher in non-survivors than survivors (P = 0.0018)
Cowley et al., [65] 1994 125 ICU patients with sepsis (21), severe sepsis (14), ICU controls (5), healthy controls (85) Clinical definition of SIRS and sepsis sE-selectin higher in sepsis than controls (P < 0.01). sE-selectin-1 higher in severe sepsis than uncomplicated sepsis on presentation (P < 0.01) and more pronounced with peak values (P < 0.001). Not correlated with mortality
Newman et al., [80] 1993 88 ICU patients with sepsis with positive blood cultures (17), healthy controls (71) Clinical definition of sepsis Higher in septic shock than controls (23.3 vs 0.92 ng/ml; P < 0.05); not elevated in uncomplicated sepsis compared to controls  
  1. ACCP, American College of Chest Physicians; ALI, Acute Lung Injury; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; ARDS, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ED, emergency department; MOF, Multiple Organ Failure; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SCCM, Society of Critical Care Medicine; SIRS, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment