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Table 3 Studies evaluating sVCAM-1

From: Clinical utility of biomarkers of endothelial activation in sepsis-a systematic review

Study Year N Population Standard Criteria for SIRS/Sepsis Association with sepsis Other outcomes
Shapiro et al., [51] 2010 221 ED patients with sepsis without organ dysfunction (71), severe sepsis without shock (66), septic shock (71), and non-infected controls (13) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sVCAM-1 elevated in septic shock compared with non-infected controls (P < 0.05) sVCAM-1 associated with sepsis severity P < 0.04; predicts mortality and severe sepsis (AUC of 0.57 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.79), 0.60 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.69))
Hofer et al., [55] 2009 147 Surgical ICU patients with severe sepsis (101), major abdominal surgery (28), healthy controls (18) 2003 ACCP/SCCM [2] sVCAM-1 did not differentiate between septic, postoperative and healthy controls sVCAM-1 not predictive of mortality at the time of diagnosis of sepsis, but nonsurvivors had elevated sVCAM-1 at 48 h and 120 h compared to survivors(1,275.1 vs 882.0 ng/ml, P = 0.027; 1,685.5 vs 748.5 ng/ml; P = 0.021, respectively)
Kinoshita et al., [56] 2002 56 Gram negative sepsis from intra-abdominal infection admitted to surgical ICU (47), healthy controls (9) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sVCAM-1 higher in patients than healthy controls sVCAM-1 did not differentiate those with ARDS from those without; not predictive of mortality in those with ARDS
Presterl et al., [69] 1999 40 ICU patients with Candida (20) and bacterial sepsis (20) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] At all times (days 1, 7, 14) sVCAM-1 levels higher in Candida sepsis than bacterial sepsis (P < 0.05) sVCAM-1 not correlated with mortality
Knapp et al., [78] 1998 54 Patients with sepsis (28 gram positive, 11 gram negative), 15 healthy controls 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sVCAM-1 elevated in sepsis compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05) sVCAM-1 does not correlate with mortality in gram positive sepsis; does not distinguish between gram positive and gram negative sepsis
Boldt et al., [60] 1997 30 Surgical ICU patients with post-operative sepsis (30), healthy controls (not stated) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sVCAM-1 higher in septic patients than healthy controls Higher in older than younger patients P < 0.05, and tends to increase in older patients and decrease in younger patients over time
Takakuwa et al., [62] 1997 34 ICU admissions with sepsis (20), trauma (14) Clinical definition of SIRS and sepsis sVCAM-1 higher in septic than trauma patients (2,536 vs 1,019.0 ng/ml; P = 0.0004) sVCAM-1 level correlated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NO, sE-selectin-1 ((P < 0.05 for all)
Boldt et al., [63] 1996 30 Surgical ICU patients with postoperative sepsis (15), trauma (15) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sVCAM-1 is higher in sepsis than trauma (1,042 vs 689 ng/ml; P < 0.05)  
Endo et al., [64] 1996 28 ICU patients with sepsis with MOF (8), sepsis without MOF (15), MOF without sepsis (5) Clinical diagnosis of sepsis sVCAM-1 higher in septic patients with or without MOF than patients with MOF but no infection (2,654.9 vs 945.0 ng/ml, P = 0.0295; 2,045.0 vs 945.0 ng/ml, P = 0.0037) sVCAM-1 did not differ between septic patients with and without MOF (2,654.9 vs 2,045.0 ng/ml; P = 0.1315)
Furian et al., [76] 2011 45 Patients admitted to ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1]   sVCAM-1 not associated with left ventricular function or size.
Schuetz et al., [52] 2011 161 Patients with hypotension: 69 sepsis, 35 cardiac, 12 hemorrhagic, 12 unknown Clinical classification based on clinical and microbiological data VCAM-1 higher in sepsis compared to non-sepsis (P < 0.05)  
Cowley et al., [65] 1994 125 ICU patients with sepsis (21), severe sepsis (14), ICU controls (5), healthy controls (85) Clinical definition of SIRS and sepsis sVCAM-1 is higher in sepsis than controls sVCAM-1 higher in severe sepsis than uncomplicated sepsis at baseline (P = 0.06) and peak concentrations P < 0.01. Not correlated with mortality
  1. ACCP, American College of Chest Physicians; ALI, Acute Lung Injury; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; ARDS, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ED, emergency department; MOF, Multiple Organ Failure; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SCCM, Society of Critical Care Medicine; SIRS, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment