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Table 2 Studies evaluating sICAM

From: Clinical utility of biomarkers of endothelial activation in sepsis-a systematic review

Study Year N Population Standard Criteria for SIRS/Sepsis Associations with sepsis Other outcomes
Shapiro et al., [51] 2010 221 ED patients with sepsis without organ dysfunction (71), severe sepsis without shock (66), septic shock (71), and non-infected controls (13) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 elevated in septic shock compared with non-infected controls (P < 0.05); sICAM-1 associated with increasing sepsis severity P < 0.05; modest correlation with SOFA and APACHE-II; predicts mortality and severe sepsis (AUC of 0.72 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.87), 0.61 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.69))
Schuetz et al., [52] 2011 161 Patients with hypotension: 69 sepsis 35 cardiac 12 hemorrhagic 12 unknown Clinical classification based on clinical and microbiological data ICAM-1 higher in sepsis compared to non-sepsis (P < 0.05)  
Hofer et al., [55] 2009 147 Surgical ICU patients with severe sepsis (101) and major abdominal surgery (28), and healthy controls (18) 2003 ACCP/SCCM [2] sICAM-1 higher in the septic group than postoperative and volunteer groups at diagnosis (444.7 ng/ml vs 213.7 ng/ml and 219.6 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001) Not predictive of mortality at the time of diagnosis of sepsis, but non-survivors had trend to higher sICAM-1 levels at 48 h and 120 h (683.2 vs 434.1 ng/ml, P = 0.067; 360.2 vs 467.8 ng/ml, P = 0.083, respectively) compared to survivors
Stief et al., [54] 2007 86 ICU patients with Sepsis (62), healthy controls (24) Clinical definition of sepsis Higher in sepsis than controls (2.56 ug/ml vs 0.19 ug/ml; P < 0.05)  
Scherpereel et al., [53] 2006 90 ICU patients with sepsis (63), SIRS (7), healthy controls (20) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in sepsis compared to SIRS P < 0.02 sICAM-1 not predictive of mortality or severity of sepsis
Kinoshita et al., [56] 2002 56 Gram negative sepsis from intra-abdominal infection admitted to surgical ICU (47), healthy controls (9) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in sepsis than healthy controls Not correlated with mortality in those with ARDS; Higher in those with ARDS than those without P < 0.05
Paterson et al., [57] 2000 16 ICU patients with SIRS (10), healthy controls (6) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 not reported in healthy controls Not correlated with mortality
Weigand et al., [58] 1999 21 Surgical ICU patients with septic shock (14), healthy controls (7) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 significantly higher in sepsis than controls (P < 0.05) sICAM-1 significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors, sensitivity and specificity for cutoff of 800 ng/ml was 74.1%
Froon et al., [73] 1998 42 ICU patients with sepsis and VAP 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in VAP patients complicated by severe sepsis or septic shock than other VAP patients, but statistical significance not achieved Not predictive of mortality, and correlates poorly with SAPS-II (r = 0.16, P = 0.30)
Kayal et al., [59] 1998 41 ICU patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (25), ICU controls (7), healthy controls (9) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in septic patients than in noninfected ICU controls and healthy volunteers (P < 0.0001); higher in septic shock than those without septic shock (P < 0.05) sICAM-1 correlated with mortality; correlated with SAPS and MOF score (r = 0.53, P < 0.01 for MOF)
Boldt et al., [60] 1997 30 Surgical ICU patients with post-operative sepsis (30), healthy controls (not stated) 1992 ACCP/SCCM1 sICAM-1 higher in septic patients than healthy controls Higher in older than younger patients P < 0.05, and tends to increase in older patients and decrease in younger patients over time
Egerer et al., [61] 1997 24 ICU patients with infection (8), severe sepsis (16) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in severe sepsis compared with patients with infection (P > 0.05) Not correlated with mortality in patients with severe sepsis
Takakuwa et al., [62] 1997 34 ICU admissions with sepsis (20), trauma (14) Clinical definition of SIRS and sepsis sICAM-1 level higher in septic than trauma patients (987.7 vs 472.1 ng/ml; P = 0.0002) sICAM-1 correlated with endotoxin, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, Type II PLA2 (Type II phospholiaps A2), NO (P < 0.05 for all)
Boldt et al., [63] 1996 30 Surgical ICU patients with postoperative sepsis (15), trauma (15) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in sepsis than trauma (1,266 vs 444 ng/ml; P < 0.01)  
Endo et al., [64] 1996 28 ICU patients with sepsis with MOF (8), sepsis without MOF (15), MOF without sepsis (5) Clinical diagnosis of sepsis sICAM-1 higher in septic patients with or without MOF than patients with MOF but no infection (1103.3 vs 356.0 ng/ml, and 862.5 vs 356.0 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05)) sICAM-1 level higher in septic patients with MOF than those without (P = 0.0401)
Moss et al., [66] 1996 55 ICU patients with sepsis (19), trauma (36) controls (5) Clinical diagnosis of sepsis sICAM-1 higher in septic patients than trauma and controls (573 vs 148 and 235 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.001)  
Nakae et al., [67] 1996 34 ICU patients with sepsis (21), trauma (13) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in septic patients than in trauma patients (987 vs 472 pg/ml; P = 0.0002) sICAM-1 correlated with endotoxin, TNF-alpha and IL-8 (P < 0.05 for all)
Sessler et al., [68] 1995 66 ICU patients with sepsis (25), SIRS (25), ICU controls (4), healthy volunteers (12) 1992 ACCP/SCCM [1] sICAM-1 higher in sepsis than ICU controls and healthy controls (1,259 vs 585 ng/ml, P < 0.001; 1,259 vs 355 ng/ml, P < 0.0001); sICAM-1 is higher in SIRS than ICU controls and healthy controls (937 vs 585 ng/ml, P < 0.05; 937 vs 355 ng/ml, P < 0.001); higher in sepsis vs SIRS (1,259 vs 937 ng/ml; P = 0.12) sICAM-1 elevated with increasing severity of illness: septic shock, severe sepsis and sepsis (1,551, 796, and 542 ng/ml, respectively, ANOVA P = 0.017); correlated with cumulative MOF score, shock severity score (r = 0.46, P = 0.021; r = 0.50, P < 0.009); higher in nonsurvivors vs survivors (1,697 vs 854 ng/ml; P = 0.0096)
Cowley et al., [65] 1994 125 ICU patients with sepsis (21), severe sepsis (14), ICU controls (5), healthy controls (85) Clinical definition of SIRS and sepsis sICAM-1 higher in severe sepsis, uncomplicated sepsis, and ICU controls than healthy controls P < 0.05. sICAM-1 with no significant difference between severe sepsis, uncomplicated sepsis and ICU controls. Not correlated with mortality
  1. ACCP, American College of Chest Physicians; ALI, Acute Lung Injury; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; ARDS, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ED, emergency department; MOF, Multiple Organ Failure; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SCCM, Society of Critical Care Medicine; SIRS, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment