Endothelial activation induces increased production of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin. E-selectin induces leukocyte rolling, and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 bind leukocyte function antigen 1 (LFA1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA4), respectively, to induce firm leukocyte adhesion. Activation is partially mediated by VEGF binding to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1, also known as Flt-1) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Soluble Flt-1 binds VEGF competitively to render an anti-inflammatory response in the setting of sepsis. Ang-1 is constitutively secreted by pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Upon activation, Ang-2 is rapidly released by Weibel-Palade bodies, competitively interfering with Ang-1/Tie2 signaling and thereby increasing expression of adhesion molecules.