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Table 1

From: Prevalence of pituitary disorders associated with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

  Hypopituitarism GH ACTH TSH Gonadal ADH
Acute phase       
   All studies, 58.3% (32.3 to 76.1), 28.7% (8.8 to 77.2), 14.3% (0.7 to 45.7), 9.4% (0 to 40.6), 44.3% (7.7 to 91.7), 12.6% (0 to 27.2),
   n (patients) 6 (513) 9 (784) 11 (958) 12 (837) 10 (827) 13 (1821)
   Low risk of bias, 71.3% (52.9 to 76.1), 36.8% (8.8 to 77.2), 14.5% (0.7 to 23.6), 10.1% (1.6 to 32.6), 54.3% (23.5 to 80.0), 18.8% (0 to 27.2),
   n (patients) 3 (216) 5 (389) 4 (385) 6 (523) 5 (337) 5 (739)
   + moderate/severe, 70.0% (52.9 to 74.3), 36.1% (8.8 to 77.2), 14.5% (0.7 to 23.6), 5.2% (1.6 to 14.7), 61.4% (23.5 to 80.0), 23.8% (0 to 27.2),
   n (patients) 2 (170) 4 (321) 4 (385) 4 (406) 3 (220) 4 (303)
Mid-term       
   All studies, 32.1% (8.9 to 56.4), 14.8% (6.3 to 25.0), 9.7% (0 to 50.0), 4.3% (0 to 22.2), 18.8% (0 to 66.7), 3.8% (0 to 14.0),
   n (patients) 9 (608) 11 (643) 12 (669) 11 (629) 15 (792) 11 (691)
   Low risk of bias, - 12.1% (6.3 to 22.2), 16.7% (4.2 to 50.0), 6.1% (0 to 22.2), 25.2% (0 to 56.3), 11.2% (8.3 to 14.0),
   n (patients)   5 (231) 4 (215) 5 (231) 5 (218) 2 (98)
   + moderate/severe, - 12.1% (6.32 to 22.2), 16.7% (4.2 to 50.0), 6.1% (0 to 22.2), 25.2% (0 to 56.3), 8.3% (-),
   n (patients)   5 (231) 4 (215) 5 (231) 5 (218) 1 (48)
Long-term       
   All studies, 29.1% (0.9 to 73.3), 15.0% (0 to 51.8), 10.2% (0 to 64.4), 6.3% (0 to 31.8), 12.2% (0 to 50.0), 2.7% (0 to 18.2),
   n (patients) 19 (1418) 27 (1966) 26 (1782) 25 (1698) 25 (1798) 17 (1108)
   Low risk of bias, 31.1% (-), 16.6% (7.2 to 28.0), 6.8% (0 to 18.8), 8.2% (1.0 to 20.0), 12.9% (1.5 to 29.3), 5.0% (0 to 6.9),
   n (patients) 1 (45) 8 (499) 6 (369) 10 (734) 9 (707) 3 (200)
   + moderate/severe, 31.1% (-), 15.7% (7.2 to 21.7), 7.3% (1.4 to 18.8), 8.6% (1.0 to 20.0), 12.7% (1.5 to 29.3), 6.7% (6.3 to 6.9),
   n (patients) 1 (45) 5 (381) 4 (301) 7 (616) 6 (589) 2 (150)