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Table 4 Fluid management: anesthesiologists versus closed loop

From: Evaluation of a novel closed-loop fluid-administration system based on dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness: an in silico simulation study

  No management
(1)
Anesthesiologist managed
(2)
Anesthesiologist, pressors; closed-loop, fluids
(3)
Closed-loop managed
(4)
Time window until the application of first bolus from start of hemorrhage (min) - 21.5 ± 5.6a 15.6 ± 1.1 16.0 ± 1.3
Total fluid given (ml) - 1,968 + 644a 2,875 ± 275 2,675 ± 244
Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) 61 ± 6.9 76 ± 4.2 79 ± 2.0 79 + 1.1
Mean cardiac output (L/min) 3.8 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.6a 5.8 ± 0.2b 5.9 ± 0.2b
Minimum cardiac output (L/min) 1.4 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 1.3a 4.8 ± 0.5b 4.8 ± 0.4b
Final cardiac output (L/min) 1.7 ± 0.9 4.8 ± 1.5a 5.6 ± 0.5b 5.7 ± 0.4b
Cardiac output during case, coefficient of variance (%) 89 ± 29 36.7 ± 23a 16.6 ± 9b 16.3 ± 8b
  1. n = 20 in each group. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. aP < 0.05 versus groups 2, 3, and 4. bP < 0.05 versus groups 1 and 4.