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Table 4 Recommended treatments for hypertensive emergenciesa

From: Characteristics, practice patterns, and outcomes in patients with acute hypertension: European registry for Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (Euro-STAT)

Emergency type Esmolol Fenoldopam Labetalol Nicardipine Nitroglycerine Sodium nitroprusside
Pulmonary oedema + systolic dysfunction   Yes   Yes Yesb Yes
Pulmonary oedema + diastolic dysfunction Yes   Yes   Yesb Yes
Myocardial infarction Yesc   Yesc   Yesb  
Aortic dissection Yes   Yes    Yes
Postoperative hypertension Yes   Yes Yes   
Hypertensive encephalopathy   Yes Yes Yes   
Kidney failure   Yes   Yes   
Stroke   Yes Yes Yes   
  1. aAdapted from Smithburger et al. [13]. bAs adjunctive therapy. cIn combination with intravenous nitroglycerine.