TNF-α and IL-10 productions after incubation with recombinant IFN-γ and LPS in whole blood from septic shock patients. (a) TNF-α and (b) IL-10 protein expressions were assessed by ELISA, in EDTA whole blood supernatants after incubation with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml) and rIFN-γ (100 ng/ml). Results were obtained from eight septic shock patients sampled within three days after the onset of shock (black columns) and eight healthy volunteers (open columns) stimulated or not (control group) with LPS in absence or in presence of rIFN-γ overnight. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Comparison between healthy volunteers and septic shock patients was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (* P < 0.05) whereas evaluation of rIFN-y effect was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test († P < 0.05). IFN, interferon.