Macrophage markers in adipose tissue from (healthy controls and critically ill, surviving patients. Positive CD68 (A) and CD163 (B) staining in in vivo abdominal subcutaneous biopsies from critically ill patients. (C) Adipose tissue levels of arginase-1 gene expression. (D) Adipose tissue levels of protein PPARγ. Databoxes present median and interquartile range; whiskers represent the 10th and the 90th percentiles. Grey boxes represent healthy controls undergoing elective surgery (healthy, n = 20); white boxes are critically ill patients from which in vivo biopsies were collected (crit. Ill, n = 15). Different from healthy controls with * P ≤ 0.05. AU, arbitrary units.