Cellular mechanisms associated with myocardial dysfunction and damage. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze mRNA expression of IL-1β (A), Fas ligand (C) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α (E) in myocardial tissue of the propofol (CONTROL) and sevoflurane (SEVO) groups. GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. IL-1β protein concentrations were also determined by ELISA (B), and Western blot analysis was used to evaluate protein expression of procaspase 3 (D) and HIF-1α (F). Detection of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (G) and MMP-2 activity (H) was performed by gelatin zymography. For further details, please refer to Additional file 1 Supplemental digital content: methods S1. #P < 0.05 vs CONTROL.