Skip to main content

Table 1 Univariate analysis of risk factors for postextubation dysphagia

From: Postextubation dysphagia is persistent and associated with poor outcomes in survivors of critical illness

  Dysphagia severity  
Risk factors None ( n = 72) Mild ( n = 195) Moderate or severe ( n = 179) P value
Age (years) 50 ± 15 52 ± 17 54 ± 17 0.22
Male sex 52 (72) 108 (55) 109 (61) 0.04
Weight (kg) 80 ± 20 83 ± 24 78 ± 23 0.10
Comorbidities, n (%)     
   Acute MI 8 (11) 20 (10) 23 (13) 0.73
   Heart failure 15 (21) 44 (23) 28 (16) 0.22
   COPD 14 (19) 34 (17) 36 (20) 0.80
   Diabetes mellitus 19 (26) 54 (28) 41 (23) 0.56
   OSA 24 (33) 63 (32) 65 (36) 0.71
   Pneumonia (before BSE) 32 (44) 69 (35) 79 (44) 0.17
SOFA score (without GCS score) 3.5 [2 to 6] 4 [2 to 5] 3 [2 to 5] 0.98
Tracheostomya 3 (4) 25 (13) 50 (28) <0.01
Endotracheal tube size, n (%)     0.17
   7.0 mm or less (n = 74) 10 (14) 39 (20) 25 (15)  
   7.5 mm (n = 108) 23 (32) 38 (20) 47 (28)  
   8.0 mm or greater (n = 251) 39 (54) 114 (60) 98 (58)  
Intubated in ED, n (%) 15 (21) 28 (14) 32 (18) 0.41
Reintubation (before BSE), n (%)a 10 (14) 17 (9) 43 (24) <0.01
Ventilator days 4 [2 to 7] 6 [3 to 11] 10 [5 to 17] <0.01
Mechanical ventilation more than 7 days, n (%)a,b 15 (21) 77 (39) 105 (59) <0.01
  1. BSE = bedside swallow evaluation; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ED = emergency department; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; MI = myocardial infarction; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; SD = standard deviation; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Data are presented as n (%), means ± SD or medians [25th to 75th percentiles]. aP < 0.05 for comparison of moderate or severe dysphagia to no dysphagia after Bonferroni correction. bP < 0.05 for comparison of mild to no dysphagia after Bonferroni correction.