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Table 4 Comparisons of studies regarding HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU in the HAART era

From: Admissions to intensive care unit of HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: etiology and prognostic factors

City
[reference]
San Francisco
[8]
San Francisco [16] New York
[20]
Paris
[18]
Mexico
[14]
São Paulo
[15]
Rio de Janeiro
[19]
Taipei
Study year 1996-1999 2000-2004 1997-1999 1996-2005 1996-2006 1996-2006 2006-2008 2001-2010
HIV-related characteristics         
   Newly diagnosed HIV (%) 5.6 - - 19.7a 26 38 28 44.4
   Median CD4 count (cells/mm3) 64 109 85 - - 39 75 30
ICU admission diagnosis (%)         
   Respiratory failure (%) 40.7 42.3 30.0 58.8 51.0 33.1 29 44.4
   pneumocystosis (%) 10.7 13.8 - 18.7 - 23.2 - 8.1b
   Sepsis (%) 11.9 20.3 13.0 23.9 26.0 31.2 20.5 33.3
   Neurological disease (%) 12.4 16.3 18.0 32 15.0 19.4 22.7 11.9
   Others (%) 35.0 21.1 39.0 - 21.0 16.2 27.3 13.3
Mortality predictors         
   ART use No prior HAART univariably increased hospital mortality, 1.8 (1.02-3.2), but not significantly in multivariable analysis No association No association No association No prior HAART independently increased ICU mortality, 3.33 (1.43-10.0)c No ART use in ICU independently increased 6-month mortality, 2.00 (1.41-2.86) No association No association
   CD4 count (cells/mm3) - - CD4 < 200 univariably increased hospital mortality, 2.24 (1.16-4.31), but not significantly in multivariable analysis No association - CD4 < 50 independently increased ICU mortality, 2.10 (1.17-3.76) No association CD4 (per 10-cells/mm3 decrease) independently increased hospital mortality, 1.036 (1.003-1.069)
   Admission diagnosis of sepsis - No significant difference between with sepsis and respiratory failure - Severe sepsis independently increased ICU mortality, 3.67 (1.53-8.80) Septic shock independently increased ICU mortality, 2.4 (1.1-5.2)c Sepsis independently increased ICU mortality, 3.16 (1.65-6.06) Severe sepsis/septic shock independently increased 28-day mortality, 3.13 (1.21-8.07)c Sepsis independently increased hospital mortality, 2.91 (1.11-7.62)
   Hospital-to-ICU interval - - - Delayed ICU admission independently increased ICU mortality, 3.04 (1.29-7.71) - - - Hospital-to-ICU interval > 24 hours univariably increased hospital mortality, 2.72 (1.23-6.01), but not significantly in multivariable analysis
   Serum albumin level (g/dL) Serum albumin < 2.6 independently increased hospital mortality, 3.5 (1.8-6.6) Lower serum albumin (per 1-g/dl decrease) independently increased hospital mortality, 2.08 (1.41-3.06) - - No association No association - Lower serum albumin (per 1-g/dl decrease) univariably increased hospital mortality, 1.69 (1.04-2.74), but not significantly in multivariable analysis
  1. Values are given as odds ratio (95% confidence interval), unless otherwise indicated.
  2. aHIV diagnosis within 60 days before ICU admission.
  3. bDiagnosis was based on identification of Pneumocystis in the sputum, bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid, or transbronchoscopic or surgical lung biopsy.
  4. cValues are given as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval).
  5. ART, antiretroviral therapy; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy.