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Table 2 Key stages in the design and implementation of a team training program [14, 21]

From: Teamwork and team training in the ICU: Where do the similarities with aviation end?

1. Conducting a needs assessment An assessment of the team behaviors associated with effective and safe performance in the task domain must be made along with an evaluation of the gap between actual and optimal performance. From this assessment, a team training curriculum can be devised.
2. Developing training objectives The objectives of team training should be explicitly stated (for example, to influence attitudes and behavior) in order for measures to be developed to assess training efficacy.
3. Selecting training methods Common methods include instructional, demonstrative, or practice-based training, and their usage will depend on the training objectives. The setting used for team training should be considered carefully along with teaching resources (for example, availability of high-fidelity simulators and training staff).
4. Designing a training strategy The training strategy should be designed to meet the stated training objectives. This might include (a) introducing participants to teamwork theory, (b) providing them with opportunities to practice and receive feedback on teamwork skills, and (c) providing recurrent training to reinforce teamwork skills.
5. Implementing the team training The purpose of a team training program should be clearly articulated and communicated to participants and tutors prior to implementation. Team training should be blended into practitioner training, and managerial staff must display a commitment to the importance of team training. The quality of the curriculum and teaching should be constantly monitored, assessed, and adapted where necessary.
6. Evaluating the training Measures should be devised to regularly test the impact of the training upon (a) individuals (for example, attitudes, knowledge, and observations of practice) and (b) the organization (for example, error rates and safety climate).
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