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Table 1 Characteristics of trauma patientsa

From: Revised trauma scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality in the emergency department: Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure score

     Derivation Validation
Characteristics Statistical measurement Units ( N = 13,463) ( N = 13,691)
Patient age   Means ± SD Years 51.2 ± 21.3 51.2 ± 21.5
Gender (male)   n (%)   9,270 (68.9) 9,434 (68.9)
Trauma causes Blunt n (%)   12,742 (94.6) 12,939 (94.5)
  Penetrating n (%)   721 (5.4) 752 (5.5)
  Ambulance n (%)   11,285 (87.2) 11,511 (87.2)
  Helicopter n (%)   849 (6.6) 841 (6.4)
Transporter Doctor's car n (%)   405 (3.1) 422 (3.2)
  Own car n (%)   244 (1.9) 250 (1.9)
  On foot n (%)   64 (0.5) 62 (0.5)
  Other n (%)   99 (0.8) 109 (0.8)
  SBP Means ± SD mmHg 131.9 ± 31.0 132.5 ± 31.0
  DBP Means ± SD mmHg 77.4 ± 20.0 77.4 ± 20.2
Prehospital vital sign HR Means ± SD per minute 85.3 ± 23.4 85.0 ± 23.5
  RR Means ± SD per minute 22.2 ± 7.4 22.0 ± 7.4
Alcohol drunk   n (%)   1,677 (12.5) 1,625 (11.9)
  GCS Means ± SD   12.6 ± 4.0 12.6 ± 4.0
  SBP Means ± SD mmHg 125.3 ± 44.7 125.3 ± 44.7
  DBP Means ± SD mmHg 74.5 ± 24.0 74.3 ± 24.4
Initial vital signs at ED HR Means ± SD per minute 82.4 ± 28.4 82.3 ± 28.9
  RR Means ± SD per minute 20.8 ± 8.5 20.8 ± 8.6
  BT Means ± SD °C 36.2 ± 1.0 36.3 ± 1.0
  ISS Means ± SD   16.9 ± 13.5 17.1 ± 13.5
  RTS Means ± SD   6.9 ± 2.0 6.8 ± 2.0
  T-RTS Means ± SD   10.6 ± 2.9 10.6 ± 3.0
Trauma scores TRISS Means ± SD   0.85 ± 0.28 0.84 ± 0.28
  MGAP Means ± SD   23.5 ± 5.5 23.4 ± 5.6
  GAP Means ± SD   19.4 ± 5.2 19.3 ± 5.3
  1. aMissing prehospital data are gender (n = 7), transporter (n = 1,009), SBP (n = 7,364), DBP (n = 10,131), HR (n = 5,797), RR (n = 7,386). Missing data at the ED are alcohol drunk (n = 9,649) and BT (n = 3,542). SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HR: heart rate; RR: respiratory rate; GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale; BT: body temperature; ISS: Injury Severity Scale; RTS: Revised Trauma Score; T-RTS: Triage-RTS; TRISS: Trauma and Injury Severity Score; MGAP: Mechanism, Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Arterial Pressure; GAP: Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure; ED: emergency department; SD: standard deviation.