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Table 2 Cases of cerebral vasospasm after rupture of a BAVM, adapted from Yanaka et al. [3] and Gerard et al. [7]

From: Admission risk factors for cerebral vasospasm in ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations: An observational study

  Clinical and radiological features BAVM angioarchitectural features BAVM treatment Vasospasm features and management Outcome
# Sex GCS SAH IVH ICH Location Venous drainage Size (mm) Eloquence Spetzler Martin Grade Co-existing aneurism BAVM treatment Exclusion Time to treatment Time to onset (days) TCD Mean flow velocity (cm/s) TCD-VS artery CI location Medical treatment Endovascular treatment GOS Causes of death
1 M 4 A Y N R. frontal Superf. <30 N 1 N None - - 11 200 B MCA L ACA L MCA Nimodipine IA Nimodipine 1 Cerebral ischemia
2 F 3 F Y Y R. temporal Superf. 30 to 60 N 2 N Surgery Total <24 h 9 160 B MCA   None None 2 -
3 M 3 F Y Y R. frontal Deep >60 Y 5 N None - - 10 150 B MCA R MCA R ACA L MCA None None 1 Intracranial hypertension
4 F 3 D Y Y Cerebellum Superf. <30 Y 2 N Surgery Total <24 h 6 169 B MCA R ACA L VA, BA   None None 1 Intracranial hypertension
5 M 10 A N Y Cerebellum Superf. <30 Y 2 N Surgery Total <24 h 4 150 B MCA B ACA   Nimodipine None 2 -
6 M 4 D Y Y R. parietal Deep 30 to 60 N 3 N Surgery Total <24 h 7 222 L MCA   Nimodipine IA Nimodipine IA Milrinone 1 Initial bleed
7 F 7 A Y Y L. parietal Deep <30 N 2 Intranidal None - - 13 165 B MCA R MCA Nimodipine None 3 -
8 F 7 F Y Y Posterior cranial fossa Superf. <30 N 1 N Surgery Total <24 h 11 162 B MCA B MCA B PCA None IA Nimodipine IA Milrinone 1 Cerebral ischemia
9 F 13 D Y N L. frontal Deep <30 Y 3 N Embolization Total 5 d 9 160 R MCA R MCA RACA Nimodipine IA Nimodipine IA Milrinone 2 -
10 F 5 A Y Y R. frontal Deep <30 Y 3 N Surgery Total <24 h 4 194 B MCA R ACA L MCA Nimodipine None 3 -
11 F 3 D Y Y R. frontal Deep >60 Y 5 N Embolization Incom-plete <24 h 11 185 B MCA B ACA   Nimodipine None 5 -
12 M 8 A N Y R. parietal Deep 30 to 60 Y 4 N None - - 4 217 R MCA   Nimodipine None 3 -
  1. A, absent; ACA, anterior cerebral artery; B, bilateral; BA, basilar artery; BAVM, brain arteriovenous malformation; CI, cerebral infarction; D, diffuse; F, focal; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS, Glasgow Outcome Scale; IA, intraarterial; ICA, internal carotid artery; ICH, intracerebral hemorrhage; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; L, left; MCA, middle cerebral artery; N, no; PCA, posterior cerebral artery; R, right; SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage; Superf, superficial; TCD, transcranial Doppler; TCD-VS, vasospasm detected using transcranial Doppler; VA, vertebral artery; Y, yes.