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Table 1 Associations linking transcranial Doppler vasospasm and cerebral infarction to admission characteristics and outcomes

From: Admission risk factors for cerebral vasospasm in ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations: An observational study

  All Patients N = 72 TCD-VS N = 12 CI N = 6
   N (%) RR (95% CI) P N (%) RR (95% CI) P
Demographics and medical history
Age (years) 40 +/- 9 33 +/-10 - 0.05 38 +/- 13 - 0.98
Female sex 29 (40%) 7 (58%) 2.1 (0.7 to 5.9) 0.20 4 (67%) 2.9 (0.6 to 15.1) 0.22
Smokers 18 (25%) 1 (8%) 0.3 (0.03 to 2.0) 0.27 1 (17%) 0.6 (0.07 to 4.8) 0.99
Hypertension 8 (11%) 0 (0%) - 0.34 0 (0%) - 0.99
Diabetes 2 (3%) 0 (0%) - 0.99 0 (0%) - 0.99
Admission features
GCS score <8 28 (39%) 9 (75%) 4.7 (1.6 to 26) 0.001 5 (83%) 7.8 (0.1 to 63) 0.03
Seizure 9 13%) 2 (17%) 1.4 (0.4 to 5.4) 0.63 2 (33%) 3.5 (0.7 to 16.4) 0.16
Troponin elevation 18 (25%) 4 (33%) 1.5 (0.5 to 4.4) 0.48 1 (17%) 0.6 (0.07 to 4.8) 0.99
EKG abnormality 2 (3%) 1 (8%) 3.2 (0.7 to 14) 0.31 0 (0%) - 0.99
ICH 64 (89%) 10 (83%) 0.6 (0.2 to 2.4) 0.61 4 (67%) 0.2 (0.05 to 1.2) 0.14
IVH 54 (75%) 10 (83%) 1.7 (0.4 to 6.9) 0.72 6 (100%) - 0.33
SAH 32 (44%) 7 (58%) 1.7 (0.6 to 5.0) 0.34 3 (50%) 1.2 (0.3 to 5.8) 0.99
   Diffuse 14 (19%) 4 (33%)    1 (17%)   
   Focal 18 (25%) 3 (25%) - 0.40 2 (33%) - 0.85
   Absent 40 (56%) 5 (42%)    3 (50%)   
BAVM characteristics and treatment
BAVM location
   Frontal 25 (35%) 5 (43%)    4 (67%)   
   Temporal 10 (14%) 0 (0%)    0 (0%)   
   Parietal 15 (21%) 4 (33%) - 0.31 1 (17%) - 0.77
   Occipital 8 (11%) 0 (0%)    0 (0%)   
   Posterior fossa 14 (19%) 3 (25%    1 (17%)   
Size of BAVM*
   <3 cm 43 (63%) 7 (58%)    5 (83%)   
   3 to 6 cm 19 (28%) 3 (25%) - 0.52 0 (0%) - 0.29
   >6 cm 6 (8%) 2 (17%)    1 (17%)   
Adjacent to eloquent brain * 50 (69%) 7 (58%) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.4) 0.27 3 (50%) 0.4 (0.07; 1.6) 0.32
Deep venous drainage* 31 (43%) 7 (58%) 1.7 (0.5 to 4.7) 0.36 4 (67%) 2.4 (0.5 to 12) 0.40
Co-existing aneurysm*        
   None 50 (73%) 11 (92%)    5 (83%)   
   Intranidal 8 (12%) 1 (8%) - 0.99 1 (17%) - 0.99
   Feeding vessel 8 (12%) 0 (0%)    0 (0%)   
   Willis 2 (3%) 0 (0%)    0 (0%)   
Surgical resection 35 (49%) 6 (50%) 1.0 (0.3 to 2.8) 0.99 2 (33%) 0.5 (0.1 to 2.5) 0.67
Embolization 15 (20%) 2 (17%) 0.7 (0.2 to 2.9) 0.99 1 (17%) 0.7 (0.1 to 5.6) 0.99
Mixed 6 (8%) 0(0%) to 0.58 0 (0%) - 0.99
Complete treatment 34 (47%) 5 (42%) 1.6 (0.5 to 4.4) 0.53 3 (50%) 1.2 (0.2 to 4.2) 0.99
Early treatment 43 (60%) 8 (67%) 1.4 (0.4 to 4.1) 0.75 3 (50%) 0.7 (0.1 to 3.1) 0.67
ICU outcomes
Norepinephrine 46 (64%) 11 (92%) 6.2 (0.8 to 45) 0.04 6 (100%) - 0.08
Intracranial hypertension 41 (57%) 10 (83%) 3.7 (0.9 to 16) 0.06 6 (100%) 3.8 (0.5 to 31) 0.22
Hypothermia 15 (21%) 4 (33%) 1.9 (0.7 to 5.5) 0.26 3 (50%) 3.8 ( 0.8 to 17) 0.10
CSF drainage 42 (59%) 10 (83%) 3.5 (0.8 to 15) 0.10 6 (100%) - 0.04
ICU LOS 28 (12 to 38) 34 (17 to 41) - 0.09 27 (14 to 36) - 0.74
ICU-free days 6 (0 to 28) 1 (0 to 3) - 0.01 0 (0 to 2) - 0.06
Unfavorable outcome (GOS 1-3) 50 (69%) 11 (92%) 4.9 (0.7 to 35) 0.09 6 (100%) - 0.17
ICU mortality 15 (21%) 5 (42%) 2.7 (1.0 to 7.3) 0.11 3 (50%) 3.8 (0.8 to 17) 0.10
  1. BAVM, brain arteriovenous malformation; CI, cerebral infarction, CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ICH, intracerebral hemorrhage; ICU, intensive care unit; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; LOS, length of stay; RR (95%CI), relative risk with the 95% confidence interval; SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage; TCD-VS, transcranial Doppler vasospasm. * n = 68 patients (data missing in four patients without vasospasm)
  2. Values are median (IQR) for quantitative variables and N (%) for qualitative variables.