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Table 3 Perioperative hepcidin indicesa

From: Urine hepcidin has additive value in ruling out cardiopulmonary bypass-associated acute kidney injury: an observational cohort study

  All patients Excluding patients with preoperative CKD
Hepcidin index No AKI ( n = 91) AKI ( n = 9) P value No AKI ( n = 69) AKI ( n = 5) P value
Urine hepcidin/urine creatinine, ng/mg       
   Baseline 308 (122 to 583) 120 (34 to 295) 0.07 309 (143 to 570) 164 (100 to 633) 0.6
   6 hours after CPB start 5,175 (2,086 to 9,539) 1,229 (314 to 2,379) <0.001 5,402 (2,100 to 9,300) 1,400 (639 to 2,379) 0.009
   24 hours after CPB startb 3,255 (1,576 to 6,652) 1,345 (537 to 3,583) 0.07 3,143 (1,798 to 6,585) 1,345 (971 to 3,362) 0.06
Friedman test <0.001 0.005   <0.001 0.11  
Urine creatinine, mg/mL       
   Baseline 1.14 (0.57 to 1.74) 0.92 (0.51 to 1.83) 0.52 1.28 (0.60 to 1.96) 1.66 (0.78 to 2.10) 0.71
   6 hours after CPB start 0.19 (0.10 to 0.28) 0.21 (0.10 to 0.30) 0.84 0.19 (0.11 to 0.28) 0.21 (0.12 to 0.30) 0.97
   24 hours after CPB startb 0.46 (0.24 to 0.71) 0.22 (0.12 to 0.29) 0.008 0.52 (0.29 to 0.73) 0.22 (0.18 to 0.37) 0.022
Friedman test <0.001 0.03   <0.001 0.17  
Urine/plasma hepcidin ratio       
   Baseline 2.6 (1.2 to 4.9) 1.1 (0.2 to 5.6) 0.18 2.8 (1.2 to 4.8) 4.6 (1.6 to 8.4) 0.41
   6 hours after CPB start 3.1 (1.5 to 5.3) 1.0 (0.2 to 3.1) 0.047 3.6 (1.9 to 5.9) 3.0 (1.0 to 46.7) 0.59
   24 hours after CPB startb 6.9 (2.0 to 13.3) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.4) 0.011 8.2 (3.8 to 15.1) 2.3 (0.8 to 11.6) 0.11
Friedman test <0.001 0.69   <0.001 0.74  
Fractional hepcidin excretion, %       
   Baseline 2.4 (1.5 to 4.1) 1.7 (0.7 to 2.5) 0.17 2.3 (1.5 to 2.9) 2.5 (1.8 to 4.7) 0.58
   6 hours after CPB start 22.1 (12.2 to 30.0) 8.3 (1.7 to 19.5) 0.005 22.0 (15.1 to 30.5) 16.3 (3.6 to 22.5) 0.19
   24 hours after CPB startb 14.7 (9.5 to 25.2) 8.1 (4.5 to 46.5) 0.35 15.3 (9.9 to 25.2) 8.1 (5.1 to 55.7) 0.6
Friedman test <0.001 0.021   <0.001 0.47  
  1. aAKI, acute kidney injury; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CPB; cardiopulmonary bypass. AKI is defined as Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease classification of AKI (RIFLE) class R or worse including serum creatinine increase and urine output decrease. Data are medians (25th to 75th percentiles) unless otherwise indicated. bValues at 24 hours after CPB start refer to 89 patients without AKI and 9 patients with AKI.