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Table 1 Characteristics of patients developing AKI compared with those who did not develop AKI

From: Urine hepcidin has additive value in ruling out cardiopulmonary bypass-associated acute kidney injury: an observational cohort study

  All Patients Excluding Patients With
Preoperative CKD
Variables AKI
N = 9
No AKI
N = 91
P value AKI
N = 5
No AKI
N = 69
P value
Age, y 74 (70-77) 67 (56-73) 0.015 75 (73-84) 65 (55-72) 0.003
Female, n 2 (22.2%) 31 (34.1%) 0.47 1 (20.0%) 19 (27.5%) >0.99
Preoperative eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 61 (52-91) 74 (62-88) 0.58 86 (72-100) 80 (70-92) 0.52
Preoperative CKD, n 4 (44.5%) 22 (24.2%) 0.23 - - -
LVEF <35%, n 3 (33.3%) 8 (8.8%) 0.06 1 (20.0%) 6 (8.7%) 0.40
Atrial fibrillation 6 (66.7%) 25 (27.5%) 0.015 4 (80.0%) 18 (26.1%) 0.025
Arterial hypertension 8 (88.9%) 65 (71.4%) 0.26 5 (100.0%) 48 (69.6%) 0.31
COPD 3 (33.3%) 8 (8.8%) 0.025 2 (40.0%) 6 (8.7%) 0.087
Diabetes mellitus, n 3 (33.3%) 17 (18.7%) 0.38 0 (0.0%) 12 (17.4%) 0.58
PVD, n 4 (44.5%) 17 (18.7%) 0.09 2 (40.0%) 11 (15.9%) 0.21
  1. AKI, acute kidney disease; AKI defined as RIFLE class R or worse including serum creatinine increase and urine output decrease.
  2. Diabetes mellitus defined as diabetes on medication (insulin or oral antidiabetics).
  3. CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction;
  4. PVD, peripheral vascular disease.
  5. Median (25th to 75th percentiles).
  6. aAKI, acute kidney injury; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PVD, peripheral vascular disease. AKI is defined as Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease classification of AKI (RIFLE) class R or worse, including serum creatinine increase and urine output decrease. Diabetes mellitus is defined as patients with diabetes on medication (insulin or oral antidiabetics). Data are medians (25th to 75th percentiles) unless otherwise indicated.