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Table 2 Redox characteristics of plasma in adults with sepsis

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Sepsis - from the redox point of view

  Patient groups   Method Reference
Anti-oxidant     
   Ascorbate (mg/L) Control: 1.71 ± 0.46 Sepsis: 0.55 ± 0.28 Spectrophotometric assay [116]
  Control: 4.5 to 12 Critically injured: 1.1 ± 0.3 HPLC [117]
   Retinol (μg/L) Control: 735 ± 183 Septic shock: 265 ± 193 HPLC [118]
   Tocopherol (mg/L) Control: 11.5 ± 1.3 Septic shock: 3.6 ± 2.0 HPLC [118]
   β-Carotene (μg/L) Control: 619 ± 259 Septic shock: <101 HPLC [118]
   Lycopene (μg/L) Control: 522 ± 184 Septic shock: <154 HPLC [118]
Oxidative stress biomarkers     
   Total plasma thiols (R-SH) (μmol/L) Control: 364 ± 22 Sepsis: 138 ± 14 Ellman's method [119]
   Lipid peroxidation (μmol/L) Control: <2 Patients with >3 failing organs: 4.9 ± 2.3 TBARS assay [118]
  Control: 0.92 ± 0.39 Sepsis survivors: 0.99 ± 0.14 TBARS assay [120]
   Sepsis non-survivors: 3.33 ± 2.29   
   Lipid peroxidation (nmol/mg of protein) Sepsis (day 1): 2.4 Sepsis (day 7): 2.9 FOX assay [121]
   Total anti-oxidant capacity (nmol/mg of protein)a Sepsis (day 1): 1.5 Sepsis (day 7): 1.1 ABTS assay [121]
   Total anti-oxidant capacity (%) Control: 57.3 to 60.3 Survivors: 51.4 to 55.4 ABTS assay [30]
   Non-survivors: 46.1 to 47.6   
   Total anti-oxidant capacity (μmol/L) Control: 354 ± 9 Sepsis: 265 ± 32 TRAP assay [31]
   Septic shock: 452 ± 34   
  1. aThe use of total anti-oxidant capacity assays is associated with some pitfalls; therefore, the results obtained with such methods should be taken with some caution. For example, urate interferes with both the ABTS and the TRAP assays, potentially leading to falsely high values [23]. Urate increases in many pathophysiological conditions, for example, in renal failure, which may develop in sepsis. Another problem is that plasma contains a complex mixture of anti-oxidants that react at different rates, so some of them may not be detected by rapid assays [23]. ABTS, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid); FOX, ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TRAP, total radical-trapping antioxidant potential.