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Table 1 Immune dysfunctions in septic patients: potential biomarkers

From: Clinical review: flow cytometry perspectives in the ICU - from diagnosis of infection to monitoring of injury-induced immune dysfunctions

Response   Biomarker Flow cytometry technique
Innate immune response Functional testing ex vivo cytokine production after TLR agonist stimulation Cytometric bead array
  Plasma cytokines ↑ IL-10 Cytometric bead array
  Cell surface marker expression ↓ mHLA-DR Cell surface staining
   ↓ CD14, CD86, GM-CSFR, CX3CR1, and so forth  
  Apoptosis Depolarized mitochondria Cell surface staining
   ↓ CD14  
Adaptive immune response Functional testing ↓ proliferation after antigenic or nonspecific stimulation CFSE probes
  Cell surface marker expression ↑ inhibitory receptors: PD-1, CTLA4, CD47, and so forth Cell surface staining
   ↓ co-activator receptors: CD28, CD3  
   ↑ % CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells  
  Apoptosis ↓ T-cell count Cell surface staining
   ↑ Annexin V staining Cell surface staining
   ↓ Bcl2 expression protein/gene Intracellular staining
   Bax/Bcl-xl or Bax/Bcl2 ratios  
  1. CFSE, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester; GM-CSFR, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor; mHLA-DR, circulating monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression; PD-1, programmed death 1; TLR, Toll-like receptor.