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Table 1 Examples of available methods to measure cardiac output

From: Clinical review: Update on hemodynamic monitoring - a consensus of 16

Method System Limitations
Thermodilution PAC Invasiveness - training required
Transpulmonary indicator dilution PiCCO® Decreased accuracy?
   Need for dedicated arterial catheter
  LiDCO™ Decreased accuracy?
   Need for lithium injection
   Interference by non-depolarizing muscle relaxants; inaccurate in case of hyponatremia
  COstatus® Decreased accuracy?
  VolumeView™ Decreased accuracy?
   Need for dedicated arterial catheter
Arterial-pressure waveform-derived PiCCO®, LiDCO™, Vigileo™, MostCare™ Decreased accuracy, need for optimal arterial pressure tracing
Esophageal Doppler CardioQ™, WAKIe TO Training required, intermittent measurement
Suprasternal Doppler USCOM® Difficult in some patients
Echocardiography Vivid™, Sonosite MicroMaxx®, Philips CX50™, and so on Training required, intermittent measurement
Partial CO2 rebreathing NiCO® Less reliable in respiratory failure
Bioimpedance Lifegard®, TEBCO®, Hotman®, BioZ®, and so on Less reliable in critically ill patients, not applicable in cardiothoracic surgery
Bioreactance NICOM® Validated in only one study in critically ill patients
  1. PAC, pulmonary artery catheter.