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Table 2 Plasma mediator release during mechanical ventilation; patient and animal data

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Ventilation-induced renal injury through systemic mediator release - just theory or a causal relationship?

Reference Model/injury Ventilation strategy Systemic mediators
Calfee et al. [19] ICU patients 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg sICAM-1
Eisner et al. [20] ICU patients 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg SP-D
Parsons et al. [21] ICU patients 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg IL-6, IL-8
Parsons et al. [22] ICU patients 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg sTNFR-1
Ranieri et al. [23] ARDS patients 11 ml/kg, PEEP 6 versus 8 ml/kg, PEEP 15 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1RA, sTNFR-55/75
Stuber et al. [24] ICU patients 12 ml/kg, PEEP 5 versus 5 ml/kg, PEEP 15 IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1RA
ARDS Network [5] ICU patients 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg IL-6
Ware et al. [25] ICU patients 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg PAI-1, aPC
Chen et al. [17] Healthy rats Non-ventilated versus 40 ml/kg Active PAI-1
Chiumello et al. [202] Acid aspiration in rats 16 ml/kg versus 16 ml/kg, 5 PEEP versus 9 ml/kg versus 9 ml/kg, 5 PEEP versus same with recruitment maneuvers TNF-α, MIP-2
Choi et al. [18] Healthy rats 20 ml/kg versus 7 ml/kg VEGF
Crimi et al. [11] Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats 12 ml/kg, PEEP 0 versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 5 IL-6, MIP-2
Dhanireddy et al. [12] S. aureus aspiration in mice SB versus 10 ml/kg IL-6, KC, MIP-2
Guery et al. [203] Healthy rats 30 ml/kg versus 10 ml/kg TNF-α
Haitsma et al. [16] Pneumonia in rats 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 5, versus SB TATc, active tPA
Haitsma et al. [204] LPS aspiration and i.p. in rats 45 cmH2O versus 45 cmH2O, PEEP 10 TNF-α
Haitsma et al. [205] LPS aspiration and i.p. in rats 45 cmH2O versus 45 cmH2O, PEEP 10 TNF-α
Haitsma et al. [206] Healthy rats 32 cmH2O versus 32 cmH2O, PEEP 6 versus 13 cmH2O, PEEP 3 IL-6, MIP-2
Herrera et al. [207] Septic rats 20 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg versus 20 ml/kg, PEEP AIP versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP AIP TNF-α, IL-6
Imai et al. [10] Acid aspiration in rabbits 15 to 17 ml/kg, PEEP 0 to 3 versus 5 to 7 ml/kg, PEEP 9 to 12 MCP-1, IL-8, GRO, sFasL
Kobr et al. [26] Healthy piglets SB versus 6 ml/kg versus 10 ml/kg VCAM-1, ICAM-1
Murphy et al. [208] LPS aspiration in rabbits 12 ml/kg versus 5 ml/kg, PEEP 10 to 12 TNF-α
Oliveira-Junior et al. [209] Healthy rats 42 ml/kg versus 7 ml/kg TNF-α, IL-1β
O'Mahony et al. [13] LPS i.p. in mice SB versus 10 ml/kg IL-6, KC, MIP-2, TNF-α
Schortgen et al. [210] P. aeruginosa aspiration in rats 27 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 8 versus PLV versus SB TNF-α
Vaschetto et al. [14] LPS aspiration in rats 15 ml/kg, PEEP 0 versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 5 IL-6, TNF-α
Vreugdenhil et al. [211] Healthy rats 32 cmH2O versus 32 cmH2O, PEEP 6 versus 14 cmH2O, PEEP 6 MIP-2
Wolthuis et al. [212] Healthy mice 15 ml/kg versus 8 ml/kg IL-6, KC
  1. AIP, above inflection ection point; aPC, activated protein C; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; GRO, growth-regulated oncogene; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; IL-1RA, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; i.p., intraperitoneal; KC, keratinocyte-derived chemokine; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure (in cmH2O); PLV, partial liquid ventilation; SB, spontaneous breathing; sFasL, soluble Fas ligand; sICAM, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule; SP-D, surfactant protein D; sTNFR, soluble TNF-α receptor; TATc, thrombin-antithrombin complex; tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.