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Table 1 Effects of mechanical ventilation on the kidney

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Ventilation-induced renal injury through systemic mediator release - just theory or a causal relationship?

Reference Model/injury Ventilation strategy Plasma mediators Renal endpoints
Ranieri et al. 2000 [9] ARDS patients 11 ml/kg, PEEP 6 versus 8 ml/kg, PEEP 15 IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 Renal failure according to Knaus [198]
Choi et al. 2003 [18] Healthy rats 20 ml/kg versus 7 ml/kg VEGF Proteinuria, albuminuria, eNOS expression, microvascular leak
Gurkan et al. 2003 [200] Acid aspiration in mice 17 ml/kg, PEEP 3 versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 3   IL-6, VEGFR-2 expression
Imai et al. 2003 [10] Acid aspiration in rabbits 15 to 17 ml/kg, PEEP 0 to 3 versus 5 to 7 ml/kg, PEEP 9 to 12 MCP-1, IL-8, GRO, sFasL Creatinine, apoptosis, histological changes with EM
Crimi et al. 2006 [11] Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats 12 ml/kg, PEEP 0 versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 5 IL-6, MIP-2 Creatinine, apoptosis
Dhanireddy et al. 2006 [12] Bacterial aspiration (S. aureus) in mice Spontaneous breathing versus 10 ml/kg IL-6, KC, MIP-2 Creatinine
O'Mahony et al. 2006 [13] LPS i.p. in mice Spontaneous breathing versus 10 ml/kg IL-6, KC, MIP-2, TNF-α Creatinine
Kuiper et al. 2008 [15] Healthy rats 20 cmH2O, PEEP 2 versus 14 cmH2O PEEP 5   Decreased renal blood flow, increased renal ET-1
Vaschetto et al. 2008 [14] LPS aspiration in rats 15 ml/kg, PEEP 0 versus 6 ml/kg, PEEP 5 IL-6, TNF-α Kidney apoptosis. Decreased creatinine clearance
Hegeman et al. 2009 [201] Healthy mice 20 cmH2O, PEEP 0 for 1, 2, 4 hours versus spontaneous breathing   Increased E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, IL-1β, KC mRNA expression. Increased MPO activity
Kobr et al. 2009 [26] Healthy piglets 10 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg versus spontaneous breathing VCAM-1, ICAM-1 Decreased creatinine clearance and free water clearance
  1. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; EM, electron microscopy; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ET, endothelin; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; i.p., intraperitoneal; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; GRO, growth-regulated oncogene; KC, keratinocyte-derived chemokine; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; MPO, myeloperoxidase; PECAM, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure (in cmH2O); sFasL, soluble Fas ligand; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2.