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Table 1 Distribution of basic characteristics between gender in the main population and in the sepsis subgroup

From: Gender-related outcome difference is related to course of sepsis on mixed ICUs: a prospective, observational clinical study

  Main population Sepsis population
 
  n = 400 n = 309 n = 197 n = 130
Age (years) 66 (51|72)a 68 (54|78)a 64 (50|72)a 68 (57|78)a
Drug abuse 18 (4.5%)a 3 (1.0%)a 14 (7.1)a 1 (0.8)a
Nicotine abuse 56 (14.0%)a 15 (4.9%)a 25 (12.7) 9 (6.9)
Alcohol abuse 55 (13.8%)a 10 (3.2%)a 33 (16.8)a 8 (6.2)a
Preexisting comorbidity     
   Immunosuppressive status 27 (6.8%) 31 (10.0%) 11 (5.6%)a 18 (13.8%)a
   Vascular disease 202 (50.5%)a 111 (35.9%)a 100 (50.8%)a 45 (34.6%)a
   Hypertension 178 (44.5%) 147 (47.6%) 82 (41.6%) 60 (46.2%)
   Chronic liver disease 32 (8.0%) 16 (5.2%) 17 (8.6%) 8 (6.2%)
   Chronic renal disease 67 (16.8%) 46 (14.9%) 37 (18.8%) 24 (18.5%)
   Metabolic disease 172 (43.0%) 141 (45.6%) 102 (51.8%) 71 (54.6%)
   Chronic lung disease 45 (11.3%) 37 (12.0%) 27 (13.7%) 20 (15.4%)
   Psychiatric disease 81 (20.3%) 47 (15.2%) 53 (26.9%) 31 (23.8%)
Admission category     
   Infection 14 (3.5%) 10 (3.2%) 10 (5.1%) 7 (5.4%)
   Malignant tumor 65 (16.3%) 80 (25.9%) 27 (13.7%) 21 (16.2%)
   Neurology 43 (10.8%) 34 (11.0%) 23 (11.7%) 20 (15.4%)
   Cardiovascular 154 (38.5%) 90 (29.1%) 67 (34.0%) 34 (26.2%)
   Respiratory 21 (5.3%) 17 (5.5%) 15 (7.6%) 16 (12.3%)
   Gastrointestinal 30 (7.5%) 19 (6.1%) 20 (10.2%) 9 (6.9%)
   Trauma 42 (10.5%) 29 (9.4%) 23 (11.7%) 11 (8.5%)
   Others 31 (7.8%) 30 (9.7%) 12 (6.1%) 12 (9.2%)
Surgical patients 327 (81.8%) 262 (84.8%) 151 (76.6%) 100 (76.9%)
OP category of surgical patients     
   Neurosurgical 38 (11.6%) 40 (15.3%) 19 (12.6%) 19 (19.0%)
   Musculoskeletal 59 (18.0%) 46 (17.6%) 33 (21.9%) 19 (19.0%)
   Cardiac 134 (41.0%) 65 (24.8%) 52 (34.4%) 20 (20.0%)
   Abdomen and urogenital 83 (25.4%) 97 (37.0%) 41 (27.2%) 30 (30.0%)
   Thorax 9 (2.8%) 9 (3.4%) 4 (2.6%) 7 (7.0%)
   Soft tissue and others 4 (1.2%) 5 (1.9%) 2 (1.3%) 5 (5.0%)
Severity of disease scorings     
   SAPS-II on admission 35 (26|47) 34 (26|45) 39 (28|51) 40 (29|53)
   SOFA on admission 5 (2|8)a 4 (2|7)a 6 (4|9)a 5 (3|7)a
   TISS-28 on admission 35 (26|42) 33 (27|40) 37 (29|44) 35 (28|41)
Diagnostic patterns     
Microbiologic diagnostics (% of LOS) 17.0 (± 20.4) 14.9 (± 19.8) 27.6 (± 19.3) 24.3 (± 17.3)
Radiologic diagnostics of (% of LOS) 55.2 (± 30.0)a 51.1 (± 31.0)a 52.1 (± 23.0)a 45.4 (± 21.3)a
Antibiotic therapy     
   SOP adherence (% of LOS) 77.3 (± 32.6) 79.0 (± 33.2) 68.9 (± 34.4) 69.3 (± 36.4)
   DAU in agents per day 1.0 (0.5|1.5) 1.0 (0.5|1.5) 1.26 (± 0.65) 1.18 (± 0.74)
   Antibiotic-free days (% of LOS) 28.8 (± 27.9) 27.3 (± 27.6) 22.0 (± 22.4) 25.4 (± 24.3)
   Daily costs for antibiotics in € 19.3 (± 25.5) 15.6 (± 21.6) 30.7 (± 28.6) 26.7 (± 27.1)
   Duration of treatment     
   ICU stay in days 4 (2|11) 4 (2|9.5) 10 (5|19) 10 (5|20)
   Invasive ventilation in hoursb 27 (11|121)a 20 (8|95)a 96 (22|305) 85 (16|300)
  1. aP < 0.05 in two-tailed significance tests. bVentilated patients in main population, n = ♂ 331, ♀ 226; in sepsis subgroup, n = ♂ 182, ♀ 115. Binary parameters given in total and percentage (%), continuous variables presented in median and 25% and 75% quartiles (25%|75%) or mean (± STD). DAU, daily antibiotic use; LOS, length of stay; OP, operation; SAPS, simplified acute physiology score-II; SOFA, sequential organ-failure assessment; SOP, standard operating procedure; TISS-28, therapeutic intervention scoring system-28.