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Table 1 Insurance category and covariates of interest, 18 to 64 years old

From: Insurance type and sepsis-associated hospitalizations and sepsis-associated mortality among US adults: A retrospective cohort study

  Medicaid Medicare Medicaid + Medicare Uninsured Private insurance
Admissions, 103 (%) 3,920.6 (23.6%) 1,673.9 (10.1%) 537.0 (3.2%) 1,206.5 (7.3%) 9,260.6 (55.8%)
Age, Mean (95% C.I.) 35.5 (35.2 to 35.9) 51.2 (50.9 to 51.6) 48.5 (48.2 to 48.8) 39.3 (39.1 to 39.5) 42.2 (42.0 to 42.5)
Female, 103 (% of admissions) 2,975.5 (76.1%) 810.2 (48.5%) 292.4 (54.5%) 586.6 (48.3%) 6,187.8 (67.1%)
Race, 103 (% of admissions)
White 1,246.8 (31.8%) 792.2 (47.3%) 226.7 (42.2%) 486.6 (39.9%) 4,678.4 (51.5%)
Black 735.3 (18.8%) 263.8 (15.8%) 108.8 (20.3%) 196.7 (16.2%) 775.2 (8.4%)
Hispanic 812.9 (20.7%) 111.9 (6.7%) 35.7 (6.7%) 180.1 (14.8%) 635.2 (6.9%)
Asian or Pacific Islander 73.7 (1.9%) 15.1 (0.9%) 1.7 (0.3%) 17.1 (1.4%) 202.2 (2.2%)
Native American 9.6 (0.2%) 2.6 (0.2%) 1.1 (0.2%) 3.1 (0.3%) 13.9 (0.2%)
Other 112.9 (2.9%) 20.8 (1.2%) 8.7 (1.6%) 48.5 (4.0%) 202.5 (2.2%)
Missing 929.2 (23.7%) 467.5 (27.9%) 154.3 (28.7%) 286.1 (23.5%) 2,663.2 (28.8%)
Quartile of median annual household income by zip code, 103 (% of admissions)
<$36,000 1,681.4 (43.9%) 553.4 (34.1%) 225.0 (43.0%) 407.0 (34.8%) 1,684.0 (18.6%)
$36,000 to <$45,000 1,084.6 (28.3%) 470.7 (29.0%) 142.1 (27.2%) 352.1 (30.1%) 2,176.6 (24.0%)
$45,000 to <$60,000 733.3 (19.1%) 360.0 (22.2%) 102.7 (19.6%) 258.5 (22.1%) 2,549.3 (28.1%)
≥$60,000 332.4 (8.7%) 239.4 (14.7%) 53.1 (10.2%) 152.7 (13.1%) 2,666.5 (29.4%)
Sepsis-associated conditions, 103 (% of admissions)
Chronic liver disease 81.8 (2.1%) 48.5 (2.9%) 14.9 (2.8%) 26.4 (2.2%) 90.5 (1.0%)
Hematologic malignancy 28.5 (0.7%) 21.0 (1.3%) 4.4 (0.8%) 5.9 (1.1%) 105.0 (0.5%)
Non-hematologic malignancy 129.5 (3.3%) 77.1 (4.6%) 18.3 (3.4%) 31.5 (2.6%) 522.5 (5.6%)
End-stage renal disease 17.5 (0.4%) 44.4 (2.7%) 12.8 (2.4%) 2.6 (0.3%) 24.1 (0.2%)
HIV 59.7 (1.5%) 27.5 (1.6%) 10.5 (2.0%) 11.0 (0.9%) 24.3 (0.3%)
Alcohol dependence 134.1 (3.4%) 53.6 (3.2%) 18.6 (3.5%) 87.1 (7.2%) 165.0 (1.8%)
Organ transplantation 13.4 (0.3%) 67.2 (4.0%) 11.5 (2.1%) 1.4 (0.1%) 51.6 (0.6%)
Infection due to device 9.2 (0.2%) 14.0 (0.8%) 4.0 (0.8%) 1.7 (0.1%) 22.7 (0.2%)
Red blood cell transfusion 130.3 (3.3%) 93.6 (5.6%) 30.1 (5.6%) 41.2 (3.4%) 304.3 (3.3%)
Co-morbidity index (Charlson-Deyo) categories, 103 (% of admissions)
0 points 2,650.5 (67.6%) 588.4 (35.1%) 198.5 (37.0%) 818.2 (69.5%) 6,439.0 (67.2%)
1 point 631.0 (16.1%) 451.4 (27.0%) 148.0 (27.6%) 248.4 (16.3%) 1,508.2 (20.4%)
2 to 8 points 616.8 (15.7%) 617.5 (36.9%) 186.1 (34.6%) 147.3 (13.6%) 1,259.9 (12.1%)
9 or more points 22.3 (0.6%) 16.6 (1.0%) 4.5 (0.8%) 4.3 (0.6%) 53.5 (0.4%)
Sepsis-associated admissions, 103
Sepsis (% of admissions) 75.3 (1.9%) 76.2 (4.6%) 25.0 (4.6%) 18.8 (1.5%) 127.3 (1.4%)
Severe sepsis (% of sepsis admissions) 41.0 (54.5%) 47.3 (62.1%) 15.5 (62.0%) 9.2 (48.8%) 58.1 (45.6%)
Septic shock (% of sepsis admissions) 10.6 (14.1%) 11.1 (14.6%) 3.4 (13.8%) 2.7 (14.6%) 17.7 (13.9%)
  1. The study cohort was divided into age strata based on age qualification for Medicare. Insurance categories were determined based on primary and secondary payers identified by the data source (see Methods). Numbers represent totals from the full weighted sample and are presented as factors of 103. Percentages are based on insurance category by age stratum (unless otherwise indicated). Categorization of co-morbidity index was based upon preliminary analyses examining best fit with odds of sepsis. Severe sepsis and septic shock was categorized as a sepsis-associated admission with ICD-9 codes for any organ failure or for shock, respectively.