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Table 5 Cooling methods in correlation to morbidity and mortality

From: Relationship between time to target temperature and outcome in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

  Survivors
284 (48)
Dead
304 (52)
P value Best CPC 1-2
285 (48)
Best CPC 3-4
286 (49)
P value
Cooling method       
   Endovascular 60 (21) 58 (19) 0.60 65 (23) 53 (17) 0.56
   Head 10 (4) 7 (2) 0.54 6 (2) 11 (4) 0.13
   Surface ice 43 (15) 36 (12) 0.62 29 (10) 50 (17) 0.01
   Nasopharyngeal 7 (2) 7 (2) 0.95 5 (2) 9 (3) 0.18
   IV 10 (4) 10 (3) 0.94 8 (3) 12 (4) 0.22
   IV + endovascular 51 (18) 55 (18) 0.68 52 (18) 54 (18) 0.38
   IV + surface air 5 (2) 9 (3) 0.29 5 (2) 9 (3) 0.18
   IV + surface ice 6 (2) 8 (3) 0.57 6 (2) 8 (3) 0.39
   IV + surface water 5 (2) 8 (3) 0.40 11 (4) 2 (1) 0.06
   Surface air 39 (14) 65 (21) 0.05 53 (19) 51 (17) 0.54
   Surface water 30 (11) 27 (9) 0.82 24 (8) 33 (11) 0.11
   Surface waterbath 8 (3) 2 (1) 0.15 8 (3) 2 (1) 0.15
   Other or mixed 13 (5) 9 (3) 0.48 13 (5) 9 (3) 0.73
Invasive cooling 155 (55) 160 (53)   161 (56) 154 (51)  
Noninvasive cooling 129 (45) 144 (47) 0.68 124 (44) 149 (49) 0.19
Out-of-hospital cooling 25 (9) 23 (8)   19 (7) 29 (10)  
In-hospital cooling 259 (91) 281 (92) 0.65 266 (93) 274 (90) 0.23
No IV cooling 207 (73) 214 (70)   203 (71) 218 (72)  
IV cooling alone 10 (4) 10 (3)   8 (3) 12 (4)  
IV+ cooling 67 (24) 80 (26) 0.75 74 (26) 73 (24) 0.68
  1. Temperature data between April 1995 and June 2008 were collected from 588 patients. Data are presented as number (percentage). Fisher exact test, Pearson chi-square test, and Wald test for comparing the cooling methods with 'endovascular' as reference were used to compare variables, such as favorable and unfavorable neurologic outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] 1-2 versus 3-4) groups, in the survivors and dead. IV, intravenous.