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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population stratified according to the type of pneumonia

From: Multinational, observational study of procalcitonin in ICU patients with pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation: a multicenter observational study

  CAP N= 57 HAP N= 57 VAP N= 61 Over-all P P(CAP versus VAP)
Age 61.8 ± 18.7 64.6 ± 15.8 60.7 ± 16.2 n.s. n.s.
Male 35 (61.4%) 38 (66.7%) 35 (57.4%) n.s. n.s.
APACHE II score 26.2 ± 7.4 25.2 ± 9.4 20.1 ± 8.5 < 0.001 < 0.001
SOFA score 7.6 ± 3.5 6.9 ± 3.7 6 ± 3.5 0.044 0.005
On antibiotics 57 (100.0%) 55 (96.5%) 58 (95.1%) n.s. n.s.
Coexisting diseases    
Diabetes mellitus 14 (24.6%) 11 (19.3%) 12 (19.7%) n.s. n.s.
Cardiovascular disease 28 (49.1%) 24 (42.1%) 16 (26.2%) 0.032 0.010
Hypertension 3 (5.3%) 3 (5.3%) 5 (8.2%) n.s. n.s.
Malignancies 14 (24.6%) 20 (35.1%) 11 (18.0)% n.s. n.s.
COPD 13 (22.8%) 5 (8.8%) 10 (16.4%) n.s. n.s.
Liver cirrhosis 4 (7.0%) 1 (1.8%) 1 (1.6%) n.s. n.s.
Chronic renal failure 2 (3.5%) 4 (7.0%) 3 (4.9%) n.s. n.s.
HIV/AIDS 1 (1.8%) 2 (3.5%) 1 (1.6%) n.s. n.s.
  1. There was no statistical difference between CAP vs. HAP in any of these variables. Continuous data are given as mean ± standard deviation. AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; APACHE, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation; CAP, community acquired pneumonia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HAP, hospital acquired pneumonia; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; n.s., not significant; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; VAP, ventilator associated pneumonia.