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Table 1 Basic characteristics and physiological data of patients according to their study groupsa

From: Balanced massive transfusion ratios in multiple injury patients with traumatic brain injury

  AIS score, head <3 AIS score, head ≥3
Patient characteristics FFP:pRBC ratio ≤1:2 FFP:pRBC ratio >1:2 P value FFP:pRBC ratio ≤1:2 FFP:pRBC ratio >1:2 P value
Number of patients (%) 212 (17%) 426 (34.1%)   167 (13.4%) 445 (35.6%)  
Mean age, yr (±SD) 45.9 ± 20 42.0 ± 17.2 0.049 40.5 ± 19.2 40.2 ± 18.2 0.947
Males, n (%) 149 (70.3%) 330 (77.5%) 0.048 111 (66.5%) 314 (70.6%) 0.327
Blunt trauma mechanism, n (%) 191 (90.1%) 379 (89%) 0.722 158 (94.6%) 417 (93.7%) 0.676
Mean ISS, points (±SD) 36.7 ± 15.3 35.4 ± 13.5 0.532 49.5 ± 14.9 47.2 ± 14.1 0.143
Mean GCS at trauma scene, points 10 12 0.001 7 7 0.571
Mean HR at trauma scene, beats/min (±SD) 105 ± 31 106 ± 25 0.907 106 ± 33 105 ± 28 0.240
Mean HR at hospital admission, beats/min (±SD) 105 ± 27 102 ± 26 0.222 103 ± 31 104 ± 26 0.686
Mean systolic BP at trauma scene, mmHg (±SD) 91 ± 34 95 ± 31 0.245 90 ± 35 93 ± 35 0.792
Mean systolic BP at hospital admission, mmHg (±SD) 93 ± 36 95 ± 30 0.411 92 ± 34 96 ± 30 0.313
Mean Hb, g/dl (±SD) 8.0 ± 2.7 8.4 ± 2.8 0.09 8.0 ± 2.9 8.4 ± 3.0 0.13
Mean BE, mM/l (±SD) -8.9 ± 6.8 -7.0 ± 5.9 0.08 -9.3 ± 6.5 -7.3 ± 6.4 0.01
Mean PTT, seconds (±SD) 51.9 (±32.8) 50.9 (±31.1) 0.63 72.3(±49.3) 60.7(±37.5) 0.06
Mean quick, % (±SD) 54 (±23.7) 56 (±23.4) 0.33 54 (±24.2) 53 (±23.0) 0.69
Mean platelets, nl (±SD) 158 (±77.7) 165 (±75.6) 0.30 152 (±74.0) 160 (±71.6) 0.23
Coagulopathy, n (%) 152 (87.4%) 298 (82.3%) 0.14 118 (90.1%) 344 (88.4%) 0.61
  1. aAIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; FFP, fresh frozen plasma; pRBC, packed red blood cell; SD, standard deviation; ISS, Injury Severity Score; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; HR, heart rate; BP, blood pressure; Hb, hemoglobin; BE, base excess; PTT, partial thromboplastin time. Coagulopathy was defined by the presence of at least one of the following conditions: PTT <38 seconds, Quick <70% and platelets <100,000/μl. In the TR-DGU the prothrombin time (PT) is documented as Quick's value where a value of <70% is equivalent to an INR (International Normalized Ratio) > 1.3.