Survival benefit of helicopter emergency medical services compared to ground emergency medical services in traumatized patients
© Andruszkow et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 10 September 2012
Accepted: 21 June 2013
Published: 21 June 2013
Physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are a well-established component of prehospital trauma care in Germany. Reduced rescue times and increased catchment area represent presumable specific advantages of HEMS. In contrast, the availability of HEMS is connected to a high financial burden and depends on the weather, day time and controlled visual flight rules. To date, clear evidence regarding the beneficial effects of HEMS in terms of improved clinical outcome has remained elusive.
Traumatized patients (Injury Severity Score; ISS ≥9) primarily treated by HEMS or ground emergency medical services (GEMS) between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed using the TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Society for Trauma Surgery. Only patients treated in German level I and II trauma centers with complete data referring to the transportation mode were included. Complications during hospital treatment included sepsis and organ failure according to the criteria of the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) consensus conference committee and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score.
A total of 13,220 patients with traumatic injuries were included in the present study. Of these, 62.3% (n = 8,231) were transported by GEMS and 37.7% (n = 4,989) by HEMS. Patients treated by HEMS were more seriously injured compared to GEMS (ISS 26.0 vs. 23.7, P < 0.001) with more severe chest and abdominal injuries. The extent of medical treatment on-scene, which involved intubation, chest and treatment with vasopressors, was more extensive in HEMS (P < 0.001) resulting in prolonged on-scene time (39.5 vs. 28.9 minutes, P < 0.001). During their clinical course, HEMS patients more frequently developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (HEMS: 33.4% vs. GEMS: 25.0%; P < 0.001) and sepsis (HEMS: 8.9% vs. GEMS: 6.6%, P < 0.001) resulting in an increased length of ICU treatment and in-hospital time (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that after adjustment by 11 other variables the odds ratio for mortality in HEMS was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.636 to 862).
Afterwards, a subgroup analysis was performed on patients transported to level I trauma centers during daytime with the intent of investigating a possible correlation between the level of the treating trauma center and posttraumatic outcome. According to this analysis, the Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMR, was significantly decreased following the Trauma Score and the Injury Severity Score (TRISS) method (HEMS: 0.647 vs. GEMS: 0.815; P = 0.002) as well as the Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC) score (HEMS: 0.772 vs. GEMS: 0.864; P = 0.045) in the HEMS group.
Although HEMS patients were more seriously injured and had a significantly higher incidence of MODS and sepsis, these patients demonstrated a survival benefit compared to GEMS.
In the prehospital setting, helicopters have been used to transport trauma patients for the past 40 years despite inconsistent evidence of the benefits of helicopter emergency medical systems (HEMS) in civilian trauma systems [1–5]. Since the introduction of helicopters into the civilian trauma system in the 1970s, an ongoing controversy has been provoked as to whether potential benefits outweigh the associated costs . In Germany, a dense network of emergency medical services, including rescue helicopter bases, covers Germany nationwide . Contrary to other countries, HEMS in Germany is exclusively physician-staffed . Therefore, this rescue system is connected to a high financial burden discussed for its presumable benefits . In general, the benefits of HEMS compared to ground emergency medical systems (GEMS) could be: first, transporting a medical team experienced in managing trauma patients. HEMS is commonly accepted to allow a small number of highly skilled and experienced healthcare professionals to perform advanced lifesaving procedures for patients with traumatic injuries [1, 8]. Second, facilitating rapid transport from the scene to the hospital based on increased transport velocity has been discussed as an additional benefit of HEMS . Especially so, as helicopters can fly directly to the scene, cover long distances and transport patients from areas inaccessible by ground vehicles, thereby providing severely injured trauma patients with an opportunity to gain access to high level trauma care when this care would otherwise not be in close proximity . Improved triaging of traumatized patients has been mentioned as a third benefit. As HEMS has the ability to travel greater distances, HEMS might be suggested to transport patients directly to a specialist trauma center where definitive treatment can be guaranteed and secondary transfers are avoided [1, 2].
Despite the aforementioned aspects, the current literature on the effect of HEMS transport on posttraumatic mortality shows varying results, with several studies finding no significant benefits [5, 8]. Contrary findings are suggesting that helicopter transport can decrease mortality [4, 10–14]. However, all currently available studies have been conducted in different countries with different emergency services . Furthermore, divergent study methologies and the number of included patients aggravate confident recommendations. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential benefits of HEMS versus GEMS by analyzing a large number of traumatized patients according to an established trauma registry. We defined in-hospital mortality as a primary outcome of interest to question HEMS' potential benefit. As an additional endeavor, we intended to address the pervading difficulties in drawing inferences from on-scene interventions and transportation mode about mortality by analyzing on-scene management and the accuracy of suspected diagnoses between HEMS and GEMS. Furthermore, incidences of in-hospital complications were evaluated in order to describe the clinical course.
Materials and methods
The TraumaRegister Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie (DGU)®
The TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (TR-DGU) was established in 1993 and prospectively collects data from more than 300 European trauma centers. Approximately 100 data elements are collected per patient structured in four sections corresponding to the consecutive phases of acute trauma care: A - preclinical phase: mechanism of injury, initial physiology, first therapy, neurological sign and rescue time; B - emergency room: physiology, laboratory findings, diagnostics and interventions; C - intensive care unit: status on admission, organ failure, duration of ventilation; D - final outcome: duration of hospital stay, survival, complete list of injuries and operative procedures. Data are submitted to a central web-based database that is hosted by AUC (Akademie der Unfallchirurgie GmbH) of the DGU. Data are collected on an anonymous basis. Since the TR-DGU is a compulsory tool for quality assessment in German trauma networks, no informed consent was required for data collection. In general, data are available for research purposes after consent by the TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (TR-DGU). The investigation was conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research.
Those treated in a German trauma center level I or II
Transportation either by helicopter (HEMS) or ground emergency medical services (GEMS), both attended by a physician
Direct transport from the scene of injury
Date of admission from January 2007 to December 2009
Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥9 points
Clinical course and assessment of mortality risk
The severity of individual injuries as well as the overall injury severity (Injury Severity Score; ISS) was determined with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Revision 2005 . Clinical course included the duration of mechanical ventilation as well as the length of intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Complications during hospital treatment included sepsis and organ failure. The diagnosis of sepsis was made according to the criteria of the ACCP/SCCM consensus conference committee [16, 17]. Organ function status was evaluated according to the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score . With three or more points, an organ function was considered as failure while multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was defined as simultaneous failure of at least two organs.
Since the study groups (HEMS vs. GEMS) were not directly comparable, we used prognostic scores to adjust the observed mortality rates. The prognosis of trauma patients was estimated using the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and the Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC) [19, 20]. TRISS is a logistic regression model that compares outcomes to a large cohort of patients in the Major Trauma Outcomes Study (MTOS), including physiological parameters, trauma mechanism and age . The RISC score is based upon the TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (TR-DGU), which analyzes the injury severity and distribution, physiological parameters, and reanimation in order to generate the risk of mortality . While the TRISS was based on pre-hospital data only (blood pressure, consciousness, respiratory rate), the RISC score also considered initial laboratory findings in the emergency department. The prognosis calculated with the TRISS and the RISC method was compared to the actually observed in-hospital mortality rate by calculating the observed vs. expected ratio (Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMR). SMR values were given with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the respective CIs of the observed mortality rates. Differences of SMRs were evaluated with the t-test. Since the database on which both scores are based are more or less outdated, the SMR itself might be of limited use but interpretation should focus on the relative effects of HEMS vs. GEMS .
Multivariate logistic regression analysis with hospital mortality as the dependent endpoint was performed in order to adjust for confounding variables. Besides the mode of transportation, the following variables were considered as confounders in the model: ISS, age, child (age <16 years), unconsciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale; GCS ≤8), shock (prehospital systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg), intubation, gender, type of injury (blunt/penetrating), mechanism of injury, level of care of the target hospital, and daytime. Result was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval.
Preclinical diagnosis, treatment and mission times
The accuracy of suspected diagnoses during resuscitation was evaluated based on emergency physicians' preclinical documentation of suspected injuries compared to the diagnoses documented clinically in the patients' charts (AIS severity ≥1). The accuracy was described as sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in seven different body regions. The sensitivity is defined as the percentage of patients with a respective injury identified by the emergency physician. Specificity is the correctness in patients without that injury. The positive predictive values describe the correctness of the physicians' suspection.
Considerable procedures of on-scene treatment were documented in order to determine potential differences of management skills between HEMS and GEMS.
In addition, the preclinical time (on-scene, transportation and overall rescue time) was analyzed. On-scene time was defined from arrival to abandonment of the scene while overall time was measured from incoming alarm-call to arrival at the emergency room. The duration from on-scene departure to hospital admission was noted as transportation time.
Subgroup analysis emphasizing on level I trauma centers
A subgroup analysis was performed on patients primarily transported to level I trauma centers during the daytime. This analysis intended to investigate a possible correlation between the level of the treating trauma center and posttraumatic outcome . Furthermore, the presented results referred to rescue efforts in daytime because helicopters are commonly not available after sunset. Daytime was defined as transport that reached the hospital between 6 a.m. and 8 p.m. The subgroup analysis focused on injury severity, complications and outcome.
Incidences were presented with counts and percentages while continuous values were presented as mean and standard deviation (SD) and median with interquartile ranges (IQR 25 to 75) if applicable. Differences between the groups were evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous data, while Pearson's chi-squared-test was used for categorical variables. A two sided P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. However, interpretation of data should focus on clinically relevant differences rather than on significant P-values.
The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; version 20; IBM Inc., Somers, NY, USA).
Cause of injury, injury distribution and injury severity
Cause of injury by transportation mode
Pedestrian traffic accident
Height fall >3 m
Height fall <3 m
Injury distribution and injury severity
Number of patients with AIS ≥3
(mean ± SD)
26.0 ± 13.8
23.7 ± 13.1
(median (IQR 25 to 75))
24 (16 to 34)
21 (14 to 29)
On-scene treatment, rescue times and hospital admission
Treatment with vasopressors
Accuracy of suspected diagnoses during resuscitation based on data of 4,049 HEMS and 6,551 GEMS patients with emergency physicians' preclinical documentation of suspected injuries, respectively
Positive predictive value
HEMS patients were more often transported to level I trauma centers compared to GEMS (HEMS: 90.1% vs. GEMS: 75.9%). Accordingly, GEMS transported their patients more frequently to level II (HEMS: 9.9% vs. GEMS: 24.1%).
Posttraumatic complications, clinical treatment and outcome
Patients treated by HEMS teams had a significantly higher incidence of MODS (HEMS: 33.4% vs. GEMS: 25.0%; P < 0.001) and sepsis (HEMS: 8.9% vs. GEMS: 6.6%, P < 0.001).
Survival benefit of HEMS measured by TRISS and RISC
Number of cases
Standardized Mortality Ratio (95% CI)
0.678 (0.617 to 0.739)
0.825 (0.766 to 0.884)
Number of cases
Standardized Mortality Ratio (95% CI)
0.798 (0.742 to 0.854)
0.869 (0.822 to 0.916)
Referring to the RISC score (n = 12,044), the expected mortality rate tended to be higher compared to the observed mortality in HEMS (Table 5).
Subgroup analysis: Level I trauma centers
A total of 7,807 patients were transported during daytime to a level I trauma center. A total of 3,855 (49.4%) patients were transported by HEMS and 3,952 (50.6%) by GEMS.
Mean ISS was 26.0 ± 13.7 in HEMS and 24.1 ± 13.3 in GEMS (P < 0.001). Time on-scene (HEMS: 39.0 ± 20.2 minutes vs. GEMS: 28.4 ± 15.9 minutes; P < 0.001) as well as the overall interval from alarm to hospital admission (HEMS: 78.5 ± 33.1 minutes vs. GEMS: 61.1 ± 32.4 minutes; P < 0.001) were enhanced in HEMS. Patients treated by HEMS developed MODS more frequently (HEMS: 33.9% vs. GEMS: 26.4%; P < 0.001) while no significant difference was found for the incidence of sepsis (HEMS: 8.5% vs. GEMS: 7.3%; P = 0.058).
Survival benefit of HEMS measured by TRISS and RISC in the subgroup of level I trauma centers at daytime
Number of cases
Standardized Mortality Ratio (95% CI)
0.647 (0.579 to 0.714)
0.815 (0.732 to 0.897)
Number of cases
Standardized Mortality Ratio (95%-CI)
0.772 (0.710 to 0.834)
0.864 (0.799 to 0.928)
Outcome benefit of HEMS
Multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in 11,198 cases found that after adjustment by 11 other variables, the OR for mortality in HEMS was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.636 to 862).
Prehospital trauma care is still a matter of ongoing debate with inconsistent evidence comparing the impact of helicopter and ground emergency transport on outcome of traumatized patients. We performed a study comparing the effects of HEMS and GEMS on outcome after trauma. We were able to demonstrate that transportation by HEMS resulted in a significant survival benefit compared to GEMS patients despite increased injury severity and incidence of posttraumatic complications (MODS, sepsis). Sensitivity and specificity of preclinical diagnoses were not superior in HEMS compared to GEMS. The extent of preclinical management was more extensive in HEMS resulting in prolonged on-scene times. Finally, HEMS patients were more often admitted to level I trauma centers.
The most important aspect between HEMS and GEMS to focus on in trauma patients has been the in-hospital mortality. In this respect, the TRISS method has been established as a prognostic tool in several studies. As one of the first studies Baxt et al. elucidated a 21% to 50% reduction in TRISS predicted mortality in the 1980s [10, 12]. In accordance, Bartolacci et al. demonstrated a 50% reduction of mortality by HEMS transportation in patients with an ISS >14 according to the TRISS prediction . In a comparable way to the presented results, Frink et al. were able to elucidate a survival benefit of helicopter transported patients . The authors measured the difference between the TRISS-expected and observed mortality finding a considerable observed mortality reduction in HEMS patients while the expected mortality was comparable between the different transportation platforms. Contrary perceptions towards helicopter transportation in traumatized patients was evaluated by Biewener et al. . Using the TRISS method with prehospital parameters similar to the presented study, the authors demonstrated no differences between the expected and observed mortality rates between GEMS and HEMS. The authors were not able to reveal that helicopter transport had an impact on mortality outcome but the level of hospital treatment reduced mortality rates markedly. In accordance with Biewener et al., Nicholl et al. measured no evidence that helicopter rescue improved the chance of survival based upon the TRISS method . However, both studies differ considerably from the presented analysis because less than 1,000 patients were included and only one helicopter station was analyzed, restricting general perceptions. However, according to the presented results, we supported the majority of studies demonstrating a survival benefit [10–12, 22, 23, 25, 26]. Although the TRISS method remains the most commonly used tool for benchmarking trauma fatality outcome, its database might be interpreted as outdated and, therefore, should be interpreted carefully . Besides the TRISS based upon prehospital evaluated parameters, we decided to also analyze the RISC score. This score was based upon a more current database including physiological parameters measured on admission . Therefore, differences with respect to the expected mortality rates were found in this study with the RISC score being more accurate compared to the TRISS . However, due to the fact that both scoring systems might potentially be outdated, we were able to support the suspected outcome benefits to HEMS patients by performing a multivariate regression, including multiple potential confounding factors. According to our results, helicopter transport was associated with a significantly reduced mortality risk of 25%. Comparable rates of improved survival have currently been found by Galvagno et al. . The authors analyzed the largest study population of approximately 230,000 patients. After adjustment for several confounding factors, helicopter transport was associated with an improved survival of 16% in level I trauma centers and 15% in level II trauma centers.
However, the outcome benefit dependent on the transportation mode seems to be influenced by several aspects, such as on-scene treatment, on-scene time and triage aspects that have to be discussed subsequently [8, 13, 28, 29]. In general, HEMS transport is commonly expected to expedite transport of patients from the scene of an accident to hospital [1, 2]. As helicopters are capable of higher speeds over long distances, avoiding difficult terrain, HEMS is expected to support the tenet of trauma management so that the benefit increases considerably when care is delivered within the "golden hour" [28, 30, 31]. Consequently, a mean overall rescue time of 80 minutes in HEMS patients in this and other research findings [32, 33] has to be discussed critically. Despite the results by Newgard et al. , elucidating no influence of preclinical duration exceeding 60 minutes, and Ringburg et al. , finding that any influence of prolonged prehospital times was not proven, prolonged on-scene times should be interpreted carefully. It might be argued that longer distances due to transportation to more remote level I trauma centers prolonged the preclinical time in HEMS patients. As transportation times of HEMS were increased in the present study, it could be assumed that travelling distances were enlarged due to a higher rate of primary admission to level I trauma centers in the HEMS group. However, no information about the travelled distances was available in this and other studies [9, 29, 32]. Therefore, this explanation remains entirely speculative. The aforementioned authors [29, 33] argued that the prolonged pre-hospital time might be caused by additional on-scene treatment. Therefore, the potential survival benefit in HEMS has been suggested to depend on rescue teams possessing superior experience in managing trauma patients resulting in extended preclinical procedures [1, 8, 11]. In order to verify this issue, we measured the extent of on-scene management, on-scene time and the accuracy of suspected diagnoses in physician-staffed HEMS and GEMS . As physician-staffed HEMS and GEMS were compared directly in the present study, we believe that the confounding factor of interpreting preclinical management between different rescue teams (physicians, specialized nurses and paramedics) was addressed adequately. We were able to demonstrate an extended on-scene treatment in HEMS patients as a potential survival benefit. In this context the impact of prehospital intubation in unconscious patients, for example, with severe traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic shock and respiratory insufficiency is still controversially discussed [32, 34]. In the USA, the success of paramedic performed rapid sequence intubation has been shown to depend on the intubation technique and ventilation mode (hyperventilation leading to an increased mortality) and the experience of the performance . On the other side, Miraflor et al. currently showed an increased mortality in moderately, initially stable patients with an ISS ≤20 with delayed endotracheal intubation . However, comparability to the presented study might be restricted due to the different health care systems with paramedics performing on-scene management in the USA and physicians performing procedures in Germany. Nevertheless, early intubation as well as the placement of chest tubes could have contributed to a favorable outcome in this study as HEMS patients had an increased incidence of severe chest injuries associated with respiratory insufficiency and a concomitant ISS >25 .
Beside the general influence of injury distribution and severity on prehospital treatment , the helicopter platform itself was suggested to increase on-scene management: Nakstad et al. have demonstrated an increase of intubation rate from 8.2% to 90.2% between ground and helicopter emergency service based on the same indications for endotracheal intubation . Furthermore, Biewener et al. revealed an increased incidence of invasive airway management (91% vs. 75%) as well as chest tube insertion (25% vs. 6%) in HEMS . Comparable to the recent study, the authors measured only physician-performed interventions. However, comparability between these studies might be limited as Nakstad et al. only analyzed the initial GCS while Biewener et al. described their patients by an ISS-based polytrauma degree.
One might conclude that HEMS' physicians diagnose injuries more accurately compared to their grounded colleagues resulting in increased management. Following this hypothesis, we investigated the accuracy of on-scene diagnoses by comparing the sensitivity and specificity in correlation to the clinical diagnoses. In general, predicting the prehospital injury pattern for many injury patterns is known to be difficult and less reliable . In accordance, we did not find a significant difference for the diagnostic accuracy between HEMS and GEMS with the exception of the abdominal region. This might be explained by the fact that especially the abdominal examination on-scene does not reliably detect all patients with intra-abdominal injuries, whereas a relevant number of patients with abdominal pain have no traumatic injuries . However, the accuracy of preclinical diagnoses seemed not to influence the measured survival benefit of HEMS patients as it was demonstrated equally between HEMS and GEMS rescues.
Beside the extent of preclinical procedures, the quality of prehospital management might be assessed by a correct triage of trauma patients with an associated transport to an adequate trauma center [1, 2]. Furthermore, studies have already shown a significantly improved survival of trauma patients admitted directly to level I trauma centers [40, 41]. Biewener et al., therefore, concluded that the level of primary hospital treatment, but not the transportation mode, influenced patients' survival . In order to clarify this issue, we performed a subgroup analysis including patients treated at level I centers and admitted in the daytime. In contrast to Biewener et al., an improved survival was observed in HEMS compared to GEMS patients. Consequently, HEMS seemed to influence survival independently of level I treatment.
The aforementioned studies revealing survival benefit of HEMS patients could be criticized due to missing clinical data [3, 11–13, 22, 25, 29]. Difficulties remain in drawing conclusions from on-scene risk prognosis to outcome. Especially as complications during the clinical course (for example, MODS and sepsis) considerably determine patients' outcome [42, 43]. To address this issue adequately, clinical complications as well as duration of ICU and hospital treatment were evaluated. In this study, HEMS patients required prolonged intensive care treatment and a longer overall length of stay than GEMS patients. This might be explained by the increased ISS of HEMS patients and the associated higher incidences of sepsis and MODS [42, 43]. Analyzing the National Trauma Databank (NTDB), Brown et al. also found an increased duration of ICU treatment and mechanical ventilation in HEMS patients . The authors also justified this aspect by the concomitant increased injury severity (ISS 15.9 vs. 10.2) in those patients. Furthermore, Brown et al. were able to reveal helicopter transport as an independent survival factor. In contrast, Talving et al. demonstrated an increased overall length of stay without prolonged intensive care treatment in HEMS patients . As no survival benefit was measured in that study, the authors concluded that helicopter transport might only raise treatment duration without improving outcome. However, as the injury severity was significantly lower (HEMS 11.2 vs. GEMS 6.7) compared to the presented study (HEMS 26.0 vs. GEMS 23.5), as well as the NTBD evaluation, comparability of the results might be limited.
The present study also has its limitations. Although databank analyses represent a large number of patients, their validity is restricted due to detection of minor statistical differences without mandatory clinical relevance. Furthermore, we had to exclude approximately 6% due to missing data referring to the transportation mode. Although this might have influenced our results, we expect this bias to be of minor effect. In comparison, Galvagno excluded 40% due to missing disposition information. However, another bias could be expected by influencing factors not evaluated by the databank (weather conditions, transportation distances and so on). Further criticism could be offered due to the inclusion criteria of an ISS ≥9 points. We decided to use the inclusion criteria of ISS ≥9 because multiple patients with an ISS between 9 and 15 were transported by helicopter. We intended to include a vast number of patients without excluding a considerable number of traumatized patients a priori. This has been done by Braithwaite et al. before including patients with an ISS of 0 to 15 points . We are aware that most papers used the inclusion criteria of ISS larger than 15 to describe multiple traumatized patients. This description is widely accepted and we do not intend to argue this aspect. We, therefore, strictly described our study population not as 'multiply traumatized' but as 'traumatized' to avoid confusion. Interestingly, mean and median ISS parameters were larger than 15 in the presented study, though. However, the inclusion criteria of ISS ≥9 has been used before in order to include traumatized patients [45–47].
Despite these limitations, the present study presents a large sample size evaluating preclinical as well as clinical parameters in order to reveal potential benefits of HEMS compared to GEMS rescue in traumatized patients.
In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that HEMS rescue has its merit on traumatized patients. Despite an increased injury severity and a higher incidence of clinical complications, HEMS has a beneficial impact on survival. The survival benefit remained regardless of the subsequent treatment at level I trauma centers. HEMS physicians performed more invasive treatment on-scene but an expected increased accuracy of suspected diagnosis leading to correct triaging could not be proven. Further investigations emphasizing special subgroups and triage criteria might help to explain the demonstrated survival benefit.
Transportation by HEMS resulted in a significant survival benefit compared to GEMS patients despite increased injury severity and incidence of posttraumatic complications (MODS, sepsis).
The accuracy of prehospital documented diagnoses was not increased in HEMS compared to GEMS rescue.
The extent of preclinical management was more extensive in HEMS resulting in prolonged on-scene times.
HEMS patients were more often admitted to level I trauma centers.
American College of Chest Physicians
Abbreviated Injury Scale
Akademie der Unfallchirurgie
German Society for Trauma Surgery
Glasgow Coma Scale
Ground emergency medical services
Limited Liability Companies Act
Helicopter emergency medical services
Intensive Care Unit
Injury Severity Score
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
Major Trauma Outcomes Study
Revised Injury Severity Classification
Society of Critical Care Medicine
Standardized Mortality Ratio
Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Trauma and Injury Severity Score
TraumaRegister DGU®of the German Society for Trauma Surgery.
The authors thank Christian Probst, MD, for initiation of this study. Furthermore, the authors thank Hans-Christoph Pape, MD, FACS, for the considerable support and his helpful advices and analyses during the revision process.
Research funding was provided by Deutsche Rettungsflugwacht, Filderstadt, Germany, to Christian Krettek, MD, solely.
- Butler DP, Anwar I, Willett K: Is it the H or the EMS in HEMS that has an impact on trauma patient mortality? A systematic review of the evidence. Emerg Med J 2010, 27: 692-701. 10.1136/emj.2009.087486View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Plevin RE, Evans HL: Helicopter transport: help or hindrance? Curr Opin Crit Care 2011, 17: 596-600. 10.1097/MCC.0b013e32834c5655View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taylor CB, Stevenson M, Jan S, Middleton PM, Fitzharris M, Myburgh JA: A systematic review of the costs and benefits of helicopter emergency medical services. Injury 2010, 41: 10-20. 10.1016/j.injury.2009.09.030View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Galvagno SM Jr, Haut ER, Zafar SN, Millin MG, Efron DT, Koenig GJ Jr, Baker SP, Bowman SM, Pronovost PJ, Haider AH: Association between helicopter vs ground emergency medical services and survival for adults with major trauma. JAMA 2012, 307: 1602-1610. 10.1001/jama.2012.467PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bulger EM, Guffey D, Guyette FX, MacDonald RD, Brasel K, Kerby JD, Minei JP, Warden C, Rizoli S, Morrison LJ, Nichol G: Impact of prehospital mode of transport after severe injury: a multicenter evaluation from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012, 72: 567-573. discussion 573-565; quiz 803 10.1097/TA.0b013e31824baddfPubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mommsen P, Bradt N, Zeckey C, Andruszkow H, Petri M, Frink M, Hildebrand F, Krettek C, Probst C: Comparison of helicopter and ground emergency medical service: a retrospective analysis of a German rescue helicopter base. Technol Health Care 2012, 20: 49-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Westhoff J, Hildebrand F, Grotz M, Richter M, Pape HC, Krettek C: Trauma care in Germany. Injury 2003, 34: 674-683. 10.1016/S0020-1383(03)00147-5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biewener A, Aschenbrenner U, Rammelt S, Grass R, Zwipp H: Impact of helicopter transport and hospital level on mortality of polytrauma patients. J Trauma 2004, 56: 94-98. 10.1097/01.TA.0000061883.92194.50View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Svenson JE, O'Connor JE, Lindsay MB: Is air transport faster? A comparison of air versus ground transport times for interfacility transfers in a regional referral system. Air Med J 2006, 25: 170-172. 10.1016/j.amj.2006.04.003View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baxt WG, Moody P: The impact of a rotorcraft aeromedical emergency care service on trauma mortality. JAMA 1983, 249: 3047-3051. 10.1001/jama.1983.03330460029027View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baxt WG, Moody P: The impact of a physician as part of the aeromedical prehospital team in patients with blunt trauma. JAMA 1987, 257: 3246-3250. 10.1001/jama.1987.03390230082029View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baxt WG, Moody P, Cleveland HC, Fischer RP, Kyes FN, Leicht MJ, Rouch F, Wiest P: Hospital-based rotorcraft aeromedical emergency care services and trauma mortality: a multicenter study. Ann Emerg Med 1985, 14: 859-864. 10.1016/S0196-0644(85)80634-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moront ML, Gotschall CS, Eichelberger MR: Helicopter transport of injured children: system effectiveness and triage criteria. J Pediatr Surg 1996, 31: 1183-1186. discussion 1187-1188 10.1016/S0022-3468(96)90114-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boyd CR, Corse KM, Campbell RC: Emergency interhospital transport of the major trauma patient: air versus ground. J Trauma 1989, 29: 789-793. discussion 793-794 10.1097/00005373-198906000-00015View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W Jr, Long WB: The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma 1974, 14: 187-196. 10.1097/00005373-197403000-00001View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RM, Sibbald WJ: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest 1992, 101: 1644-1655. 10.1378/chest.101.6.1644View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bone RC, Sprung CL, Sibbald WJ: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure. Crit Care Med 1992, 20: 724-726.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vincent JL, de Mendonca A, Cantraine F, Moreno R, Takala J, Suter PM, Sprung CL, Colardyn F, Blecher S: Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "sepsis-related problems" of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 1998, 26: 1793-1800. 10.1097/00003246-199811000-00016View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boyd CR, Tolson MA, Copes WS: Evaluating trauma care: the TRISS method. Trauma Score and the Injury Severity Score. J Trauma 1987, 27: 370-378. 10.1097/00005373-198704000-00005View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lefering R: Development and validation of the Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC) score for severely injured patients. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2009, 35: 437-447. 10.1007/s00068-009-9122-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schluter PJ: Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS): is it time for variable re-categorisations and re-characterisations? Injury 2011, 42: 83-89. 10.1016/j.injury.2010.08.036View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bartolacci RA, Munford BJ, Lee A, McDougall PA: Air medical scene response to blunt trauma: effect on early survival. Med J Aust 1998, 169: 612-616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frink M, Probst C, Hildebrand F, Richter M, Hausmanninger C, Wiese B, Krettek C, Pape HC: [The influence of transportation mode on mortality in polytraumatized patients. An analysis based on the German Trauma Registry]. Unfallchirurg 2007, 110: 334-340. 10.1007/s00113-006-1222-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicholl JP, Brazier JE, Snooks HA: Effects of London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma. BMJ 1995, 311: 217-222. 10.1136/bmj.311.6999.217PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buntman AJ, Yeomans KA: The effect of air medical transport on survival after trauma in Johannesburg, South Africa. S Afr Med J 2002, 92: 807-811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz RJ, Jacobs LM, Juda RJ: A comparison of ground paramedics and aeromedical treatment of severe blunt trauma patients. Conn Med 1990, 54: 660-662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schluter PJ: The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) revised. Injury 2011, 42: 90-96. 10.1016/j.injury.2010.08.040View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brown JB, Stassen NA, Bankey PE, Sangosanya AT, Cheng JD, Gestring ML: Helicopters and the civilian trauma system: national utilization patterns demonstrate improved outcomes after traumatic injury. J Trauma 2010, 69: 1030-1034. discussion 1034-1036 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181f6f450View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ringburg AN, Spanjersberg WR, Frankema SP, Steyerberg EW, Patka P, Schipper IB: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS): impact on on-scene times. J Trauma 2007, 63: 258-262. 10.1097/01.ta.0000240449.23201.57View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampalis JS, Lavoie A, Williams JI, Mulder DS, Kalina M: Impact of on-site care, prehospital time, and level of in-hospital care on survival in severely injured patients. J Trauma 1993, 34: 252-261. 10.1097/00005373-199302000-00014View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van der Velden MW, Ringburg AN, Bergs EA, Steyerberg EW, Patka P, Schipper IB: Prehospital interventions: time wasted or time saved? An observational cohort study of management in initial trauma care. Emerg Med J 2008, 25: 444-449. 10.1136/emj.2007.052662View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakstad AR, Strand T, Sandberg M: Landing sites and intubation may influence helicopter emergency medical services on-scene time. J Emerg Med 2011, 40: 651-657. 10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.05.067View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Newgard CD, Schmicker RH, Hedges JR, Trickett JP, Davis DP, Bulger EM, Aufderheide TP, Minei JP, Hata JS, Gubler KD, Brown TB, Yelle JD, Bardarson B, Nichol G, Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Investigators: Emergency medical services intervals and survival in trauma: assessment of the "golden hour" in a North American prospective cohort. Ann Emerg Med 2010, 55: 235-246.e4. 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.07.024PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davis DP, Fakhry SM, Wang HE, Bulger EM, Domeier RM, Trask AL, Bochicchio GV, Hauda WE, Robinson L: Paramedic rapid sequence intubation for severe traumatic brain injury: perspectives from an expert panel. Prehosp Emerg Care 2007, 11: 1-8. 10.1080/10903120601021093View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miraflor E, Chuang K, Miranda MA, Dryden W, Yeung L, Strumwasser A, Victorino GP: Timing is everything: delayed intubation is associated with increased mortality in initially stable trauma patients. J Surg Res 2011, 170: 286-290. 10.1016/j.jss.2011.03.044View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trupka A, Waydhas C, Nast-Kolb D, Schweiberer L: Early intubation in severely injured patients. Eur J Emerg Med 1994, 1: 1-8. 10.1097/00063110-199403000-00002View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Talving P, Teixeira PG, Barmparas G, DuBose J, Inaba K, Lam L, Demetriades D: Helicopter evacuation of trauma victims in Los Angeles: does it improve survival? World J Surg 2009, 33: 2469-2476. 10.1007/s00268-009-0185-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mulholland SA, Cameron PA, Gabbe BJ, Williamson OD, Young K, Smith KL, Bernard SA: Prehospital prediction of the severity of blunt anatomic injury. J Trauma 2008, 64: 754-760. 10.1097/01.ta.0000244384.85267.c5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holmes JF, Wisner DH, McGahan JP, Mower WR, Kuppermann N: Clinical prediction rules for identifying adults at very low risk for intra-abdominal injuries after blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2009, 54: 575-584. 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.04.007View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cooper DJ, McDermott FT, Cordner SM, Tremayne AB: Quality assessment of the management of road traffic fatalities at a level I trauma center compared with other hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Consultative Committee on Road Traffic Fatalities in Victoria. J Trauma 1998, 45: 772-779. 10.1097/00005373-199810000-00027View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampalis JS, Denis R, Frechette P, Brown R, Fleiszer D, Mulder D: Direct transport to tertiary trauma centers versus transfer from lower level facilities: impact on mortality and morbidity among patients with major trauma. J Trauma 1997, 43: 288-295. discussion 295-296 10.1097/00005373-199708000-00014View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spruijt NE, Visser T, Leenen LP: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of immunomodulative interventions on infection, organ failure, and mortality in trauma patients. Crit Care 2010, 14: R150. 10.1186/cc9218PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nast-Kolb D, Aufmkolk M, Rucholtz S, Obertacke U, Waydhas C: Multiple organ failure still a major cause of morbidity but not mortality in blunt multiple trauma. J Trauma 2001, 51: 835-841. discussion 841-842 10.1097/00005373-200111000-00003View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brathwaite CE, Rosko M, McDowell R, Gallagher J, Proenca J, Spott MA: A critical analysis of on-scene helicopter transport on survival in a statewide trauma system. J Trauma 1998, 45: 140-144. discussion 144-146 10.1097/00005373-199807000-00029View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wafaisade A, Lefering R, Maegele M, Helm P, Braun M, Paffrath T, Bouillon B, TraumaRegister der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie: [Recombinant factor VIIa for the treatment of exsanguinating trauma patients: a matched-pair analysis from the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery.]. Unfallchirurg 2013, 116: 524-530. 10.1007/s00113-011-2146-zView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kulla M, Helm M, Lefering R, Walcher F: Prehospital endotracheal intubation and chest tubing does not prolong the overall resuscitation time of severely injured patients: a retrospective, multicentre study of the Trauma Registry of the German Society of Trauma Surgery. Emerg Med J 2012, 29: 497-501. 10.1136/emj.2010.107391View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Couch L, Yates K, Aickin R, Pena A: Investigating moderate to severe paediatric trauma in the Auckland region. Emerg Med Australas 2010, 22: 171-179. 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2010.01283.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.