Toothbrushing for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia

  • Sonia O Labeau1, 2 and

    Affiliated with

    • Stijn I Blot1, 2, 3, 4Email author

      Affiliated with

      Critical Care201317:417

      DOI: 10.1186/cc12511

      Published: 5 March 2013

      Research on the potential contribution of oral care in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has led to the generally accepted practice of using oral antiseptic agents [1]; however, the value of toothbrushing remains controversial.

      Dr Gu and colleagues [2] investigated the effect of oral care with versus without toothbrushing on VAP prevention by meta-analysis, and found toothbrushing not to significantly reduce VAP incidence (risk ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.21). We feel, however, uncomfortable with the message that '... there is currently a lack of evidence to support toothbrushing in patients receiving mechanical ventilation'. This phrase might instigate healthcare professionals to abstain from brushing patients' teeth while the primary objective of toothbrushing is to maintain oral health, not to prevent VAP. A potential VAP risk reduction should rather be considered as a favorable side effect.

      Also, two studies [3, 4] in which VAP diagnosis was exclusively based on a Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) ≥6 were included in the meta-analysis. The CPIS is known to have moderate performance as well as considerable interobserver variability, and has been shown not to differentiate adequately between patients with VAP and systemic inflammatory response syndrome [5]. Our concern is well illustrated by Munro et al. [4] reporting to have unexpectedly found 115/192 patients with CPIS ≥6 at day 1 of data collection. This diagnostic issue may have yielded a vast overestimation of VAP rates and could have been acknowledged. We encourage researchers to use more stringent definitions for VAP diagnosis in future investigations.



      clinical pulmonary infection score


      ventilator-associated pneumonia.


      Authors’ Affiliations

      Faculty of Education, Health and Social Work, University College Ghent
      Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University
      Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Ghent University Hospital
      University Hospital Ghent


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      2. Gu WJ, Gong YZ, Pan L, Ni YX, Liu JC: Impact of oral care with versus without toothbrushing on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care 2012, 16:R190.PubMedView Article
      3. Yao LY, Chang CK, Maa SH, Wang C, Chen CC: Brushing teeth with purified water to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Nurs Res 2011, 19:289–297.PubMedView Article
      4. Munro CL, Grap MJ, Jones DJ, McClish DK, Sessler CN: Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults. Am J Crit Care 2009, 18:428–437.PubMedView Article
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      © BioMed Central Ltd 2013